Questioning Paul

Chapter 7

part 2


Incidentally, Sha’uwl’s initial condemnation is actually undermined by his citation. If the Torah is "katara – a curse from a supernatural power designed to invoke harm by promoting evil," and if it is "katara – abhorrent, slanderous, and malicious," then it cannot be a credible source. That which is katara is not reliable, thus should not have been used to validate his claim.

Having thought about this passage now for several months, having come to understand Paul’s strategy relative to dissolving and dismantling the Torah, and now viewing it within the context of Paul’s overall thesis as it is presented in Galatians 3:6 to 4:31, there is no denying the fact that Paul was trying to use the Torah to demonstrate that the Torah should not be used.

By citing a passage that includes "curse" and "Towrah," Sha’uwl was hoping that his audience would believe that he was right in stating that "the Towrah is a curse." Beyond this singular similarity, it was counterproductive for him to cite Dabarym / Words / Deuteronomy 27:26 in this context. After all, the passage says nothing about working for one’s salvation.

But if as Christians protest, Paul was intending to say that "observing the Torah" cannot save us because we have to do "everything that is written in the scroll of the Torah" or be "accursed" by it, then they and he would still be wrong. While that is the most reasonable interpretation of Paul’s rhetoric, the very purpose of the Torah is to provide a remedy for that very condition.

As we discussed, the second half of this statement presents a flawed and truncated Greek rendering of Dabarym / Words / Deuteronomy 27:26. The discussion in which it is found begins with a long list of blessings, all of which flow from observing the Torah – all of which, therefore, negate the point Sha’uwl was attempting to promote. As always, the context destroys his argument.

Starting with the 9th verse of Dabarym 27, we find:

"Then (wa) Moseh (Moseh – One Who Draws Out), the priests (ha kohen – ministers), and the Lowy (Lowy – those who unite), spoke (dabar – sharing the word) to (‘el) all (kol) Yisra’el (Yisra’el – individuals who engage and endure with God) to say (la ‘amar – in order to communicate), ‘Choose to be quiet (cakath – refrain from speaking and elect being silent (the hiphil stem and imperative mood mean that we facilitate our ability to listen when we choose to close our mouths)) and (wa) listen (shama’ – hear), Yisra’el (Yisra’el – everyone who exists and endures with God). This (ha zeh) day (yowm) you are (hayah – you exist as (in the niphal perfect, the existence of an individual who lives with God is predicated upon their willingness to listen to God’s complete testimony) a family (la ‘am – of related people) on behalf of and to approach (la) Yahowah (efei), your God (‘elohym). (27:9)

Choose to genuinely and completely listen (shama’ – under the auspices of freewill, elect to literally hear the totality of (the qal stem encourages a literal interpretation, the perfect conjugation conveys completeness, and the consecutive mood is an expression of volition)) to the voice of (ba qowl –to the speech and words of) Yahowah (efei), your God (‘elohym), and (wa) of your own volition act, engaging with (‘asah ‘eth – elect to observe, celebrate, gain from, and profit in accordance with) His terms and conditions (mitswah – the directions associated with His relationship agreement), and with (wa ‘eth) His inscribed prescriptions for living (choq – His written instructions which cut us into the relationship), which beneficially (‘asher – as a result of the relationship) I am directing you (‘anky sawah – I am instructing, guiding, and teaching you) this day (ha yowm)." (Dabarym / Words / Deuteronomy 27:9-10)

In other words, rather than "praying without ceasing," which is a constant jabbering and something only Paul insisted upon, our Heavenly Father is encouraging His children to listen to everything He has to say so that they can then choose to respond to the terms and conditions of His Covenant which serve as prescriptions for living.

From this point, Yahowah inspired Moseh to explain that by listening to God and by responding to His Towrah that they would be established and blessed. But then, knowing that many would choose a different course, with many being misled by the likes of Sha’uwl, the Towrah delineates a series of behaviors which God says will engender an unfavorable response.

"Invoking harm upon oneself (‘arar – bringing a curse upon oneself by making oneself unlikable) is the individual (‘ysh) who (‘asher) engages and acts with regard to (‘asah – who conceives, performs on behalf of, and makes) a presentation of a false god (pesel – an idol or icon fashioned to be believed and worshiped). Any (wa) representation of a pagan god which is spouted out (macekah – cocktail of imagined deities poured out or image which is cast and offered) is a detestable thing (tow’ebah an abomination which is repulsive, loathsome, and abhorrent) to Yahowah (efei). It is the work (ma’asah – the pursuit, practice and undertaking) of the hand (yad – influence [note that Sha’uwl’s epistles were inscribed by the hand]) of a clever and crafty man (charash – of an artificer who contrives and devises an inscribed and artificial construct), choosing to present it (wa sym – and through their designs to formally place it, bringing it about, establishing, listing and appointing it) slyly, concealing their purpose (ba ha cether – acting covertly in a veiled manner so as to hide their disingenuous behavior, doing it in a hidden way obfuscating their motives). And then (wa) the entire family (ha kol ‘am) replied (‘amar), ‘This is truthful, trustworthy, and reliable (‘amen – this is verifiable and dependable)." Dabarym / Words / Deuteronomy 27:15

The list of counterproductive behaviors continues with he: "who lightly esteems his Father and Mother…, who steals his neighbor’s property…, who misleads a blind person…, who denies justice to a stranger, foreigner, orphan, or widow…, who commits any form of incest…, who commits bestiality…, who strikes and beats his neighbor…, and who accepts a bribe and harms an innocent person." (Dabarym / Words / Deuteronomy 27:16-25)

We should not be surprised, therefore, that those who perpetrate these unsavory behaviors will be shunned by God. But it is telling that the course Paul charted was listed first (in 27:15), and unlike the others was called "an abomination," suggesting that few things are worse than what Sha’uwl has done.

This summary conclusion followed. It is the statement Sha’uwl misquoted and also removed from the context which incriminated him:

"Invoking harm upon oneself (‘arar – cursing oneself by making oneself undesirable) is whoever relationally and beneficially (‘asher) is not (lo’) established (quwm – restored, supported, encouraged, lifted up and caused to stand, confirmed, and enabled to endure) by (‘eth – with and through) the words (dabar – message and accounts) of this (ha zo’th) Towrah (towrah – source of guidance, direction, teaching, and instruction), approaching (la) by engaging through them (‘asah ‘eth – by acting upon them and doing productive things according to them, celebrating and profiting with them). And then (wa) the entire (kol) family (‘am – people and nation) responded (‘amar – answered, promised, and declared), ‘This is true, acceptable, and reliable (‘aman – this is affirming, supportive, verifiable, and dependable).’" (Dabarym / Words / Deuteronomy 27:26)

Therefore, we can now say for certain, that according to Yahowah: "Invoking harm upon oneself is whoever relationally and beneficially is not established, restored, and supported by the words of this Towrah teaching and guidance, approaching by acting upon them. And the entire family responded, ‘This is true, acceptable, reliable, verifiable, and dependable.’" And this means that any attack on the Torah, any belittlement of it, any attempt to negate or annul it, any statement which suggests that it is a curse, is directly opposed to Yahowah’s Word. It also means that to "make" his point, Sha’uwl had to misquote God. But more on that in a moment.

When Paulos misquoted Yahowah’s instruction regarding the restorative nature of His Towrah teaching to call God’s Towrah a curse, two things became indisputable. First, Paul is deliberately and undeniably contradicting Yahowah. The man’s message and God’s message are incongruous. Their conclusions are the antithesis of one another. Therefore, this man could not have been speaking for God.

And second, since Paulos wrote nomou in his letter to translate the word towrah in Moseh’s statement, each time we see any variation of nomos in the Greek text, we should translate it "Towrah." The man whose letter we are evaluating defined it for us. And in this case, that must take precedence over any lexicon.

Reinforcing God’s essential instruction, the very next statement from Moseh regarding the value of Yahowah’s Towrah reveals:

"And it shall reliably exist (wa hayah – it totally was, without interruption is, and literally will be (the qal stem affirms that this promise can literally be relied upon, the perfect conjugation conveys that this realization is total and complete without interruption, and consecutive mood affirms that this is God’s desire and our choice)) that if (‘im – predicated upon the condition that) you really listen to and consistently hear (shama’ shama’ ba – you actually pay extremely close attention to and continually and literally receive (the qal stem presents the ideas of actually, genuinely, and literally, while the imperfect conjugation communicates that which is continual and consistent, unfolding throughout time)) the voice of (qowl – the recited words of) Yahowah (efei), your God (‘elohym), for the purpose of (la) observing (shamar – closely examining and carefully considering) and for the purpose of (la) engaging in and acting upon (‘asah ‘eth – celebrating and profiting through) all of (kol) His terms and conditions (mitswah – the codicils of His covenant) which beneficially and relationally (‘asher) I (‘anky) am instructing (sawah – I am directing, teaching, and guiding) you this day (ha yowm), then (wa) Yahowah (efei), your God (‘elohym), He will place and appoint you (natan – He will grant you the opportunity to be) as the most high (‘elyown) among and above (‘al) all (kol) the ethnicities (Gowym – people from different races and places) of the earth (ha ‘erets). And (wa) flowing over you (bow’ – coming upon you) will be all of these, the Almighty’s, blessings (kol ha barakah ‘eleh – beneficial promises and valuable gifts), continuing to reach and inundate you (nasag – will be offered to you) when (ky) you consistently listen (shama’) to the voice of (ba qowl – the recited words of) Yahowah (efei), your God (‘elohym)." (Dabarym / Words / Deuteronomy 28:1-2)

The Torah’s message is as wonderful as it is consistent, as rewarding as it is enlightening. The Torah’s instructions exist to bless us in this life and especially in the next. All we have to do to benefit from Yah’s promises is to listen to Him – which is accomplished by reciting His Towrah.

Now that we have an appreciation of the Towrah’s role in our lives, let’s compare what Yahowah inspired Moseh to affirm regarding His Towah with Sha’uwl’s misquotation of the same statement. The Towrah reads:

"Invoking harm upon oneself is whoever relationally and beneficially is not established, restored, and supported by the words of this Towrah, approaching by engaging through them. And then the entire family responded, ‘This is true, acceptable, and reliable.’" (Dabarym 27:26)

So why does Galatians say:

"Because to the degree that out of tasks and activities of the Torah they exist under a curse which a supernatural power deploys when he wishes to invoke harm by promoting evil, doing what is accursed, denounced and detested, for it has been written that: ‘To become accursed, to become abhorrent, and repugnant, everyone who does not remain in everything that having been written in the scroll of the Torah, to do them.’" (Galatians 3:10)

These statements aren’t remotely similar, and in fact they are diametrically opposed to one another. The Towrah says: "a person evokes harm upon themselves, they are not restored or established, when they ignore the Towrah and when they fail to act upon it." Galatians says: "to become accursed, a person should remain associated with Towrah, doing everything its God asks." This "citation" is so blatantly fraudulent, so obviously disingenuous, why have so many people been fooled by Paul’s errant quotations and subsequent assertions? This isn’t the first or last time Sha’uwl has misquoted God, nor will it be his last. It is just the worst.

Along these lines, please make a note of Yahowah’s instruction in Dabarym 28:1-2, where He has asked us to "really listen to and hear the voice of Yahowah, our God," repeating the request twice. Later in Galatians, Sha’uwl will play off of Yahowah’s "listen to Me," mocking God to say "the Torah cannot hear you." Inverting God’s message is his specialty.

Now that you are informed, if you are rational, it is now impossible for you to view Paul and Galatians favorably. He is a liar, and it is filled with his lies. And while I wish it was that simple, it isn’t because Paul has placed his deceitful, destructive, deadly, and damning rhetoric in the place it does the most harm. He has undermined Yahowah’s credibility and testimony, and promoted something that is completely opposed to both, while at the same time pretending to speak for one and to quote the other.

In this way Sha’uwl has done more to separate souls from God than anyone who has ever lived. It is the reason he alone was called out by Yahowah, by name, by time, by character, and by strategy with God telling us that his religion would be as popular as it would be devastatingly deadly.

According to the Nestle-Aland, the statement Paul wrote actually reads: "For as many as from works of law are under curse they are. It has been written for (not applicable) curse on all who not stay in all the things having been written in the small book of the law the to do them."

Not bothering to examine the passage Sha’uwl cited in the Torah, as it was written in Hebrew, Bacon’s King James Version, and Jerome’s Latin Vulgate, misquoted Sha’uwl and Yahowah. And by doing so, they demeaned the source of life. KJV: "For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them." LV: "For as many as are of the works of the law (operibus legis) are under a curse. For it has been written (Scriptum): "Cursed is everyone who does not continue in all the things that have been written in the book of the Law (Libro legis), so as to do them."

After considerable study and thought, I’m convinced that while the New Living Translation is inconsistent with the Greek text, this Christian publisher accurately conveyed Paul’s intended message: "But those who depend on the law to make them right with God are under his curse, for the Scriptures say, ‘Cursed is everyone who does not observe and obey all the commands that are written in God’s Book of the Law.’" You’ll notice, of course, that the NLT had to corrupt the Dabarym quotation to keep it from refuting Paul’s thesis. But that is precisely what Paul wanted them to do, what he expected them to do, which is why he thought he could get away with misquoting a passage to support of his declaration when he knew that it was actually in direct opposition to it.

Paul’s strategy, here, as it will be in each of the four passages which comprise the foundation of his thesis, is to play off word pairs and patterns. In Galatians 3:10, the operative words associating Paul’s premise with the inaccurately cited verse are "cursed – towrah – doing." Variations of each of these words appear in both statements, albeit to communicate mutually opposed ideas.

Ambivalent to Paul’s tactic, of his willingness to twist the Towrah to serve his agenda, Christians have been cursed by the legacy of Galatians. They have now been led to believe that the Torah is not just irrelevant and passé, but is actually a curse to be avoided. And yet, God’s instruction is clear. It is neither hidden nor obscure. This is hard to misinterpret: "Invoking harm upon oneself is whoever relationally and beneficially is not established, restored, and supported by the words of this Towrah, approaching by engaging through them. And then the entire family responded, ‘This is true, acceptable, and reliable.’" (Dabarym 27:26)

In light of this statement, and the ones which precede and follow it in Dabarym, Paul’s thesis is torn asunder. According to God, the Torah isn’t just the means to eternal life, it is the only way – which is why those who don’t capitalize upon it are all said to be harming themselves. And yet Christians the world over have managed to justify the juxtaposition of two mutually exclusive thoughts, one from man, the other from God, to infer that the Torah is a curse, rather than the source of salvation. It is little wonder that Yahowah called Sha’uwl the plague of death.


Continuing to play off word patterns, Sha’uwl reinforced a similar presumption by once again misappropriating God’s testimony: "But (de – if follows, moreover, and namely) because (oti) with (en – inside and with regard to) the Torah (nomothe allotment which is parceled out, the inheritance which is given, and the prescription to become an heir) absolutely no one (oudeis – nothing, nobody, and not one; from oude heis – not even one) is vindicated or justified (dikaioo – made or shown to be correct, proper, or right, acquitted or declared righteous) by (para – with and in the opinion of) the God (to ΘΩ) becomes evident (delos – becomes clear and is made plain (scribed in the nominative, where an adjective is presented influencing the subject, God, in this case, renaming Him)) because (oti – namely and for this reason): ‘Those who are correct, righteous, and proper (o dikaios – those who are right, upright, virtuous, and guiltless) out of (ek) faith (pistis – originally meant trust but evolved to faith or belief as a result of Sha’uwl’s usage in these letters) will live (zao – will be alive).’" (Galatians 3:11)

This statement is as errant as it is unequivocal. Sha’uwl has misquoted Yahowah, twisting His words again to claim that God, Himself, is incapable of saving anyone. Sha’uwl wants Christians to believe that "oudeis – absolutely no one, not even one person," can become righteous or vindicated as a result of Yah’s Towrah.

But if this is so, why did the Ma’aseyah Yahowsha’ enable the Towrah’s promises on the Miqra’ey (Invitations to be Called Out and Meet) of Pesach (Passover), Matsah (Un-Yeasted Bread), Bikuwrym (First-Born Child), and Shabuw’ah (Seven Sabbaths)? Why did Yahowsha’ refer to the Towrah (Teaching and Guidance) as the doorway to eternal life during His Instruction on the Mount? And if Yahowah cannot save, how is it that Yahowsha’, a diminished manifestation of Yahowah, can do what God could not?

If Paul is right, why does Yahowah say that Dowd (David) is righteous and vindicated? Why did Yah bother saving Noah and Lot? What was the purpose of liberating the Children of Yisra’el (Individuals who Engage and Endure with God) from the Crucible of Egypt? If this is so, why bother with the Covenant, where through the Towrah, Yahowah promised to make His children immortal and perfect, adopting them, enriching them, and empowering them? How then would it be possible for Yowseph to be "righteous" in Mattanyah 1:19, for Yahowsha’ to say that there were "righteous ones who longed to witness to what you are seeing" in Mattanyah 13:17, that "it was known that Yahowchanan was a righteous and set-apart man" in Mattanyah 6:20, or that "Zakaryah and Abyah...were both righteous before God, blamelessly walking in all of the provisions and means of vindication of Yahowah" in Luke 1:6? If the Towrah cannot do any of these things, the children of Yahowah’s Covenant, Abraham, Yitschaq, Ya’aqob, and all twelve of Ya’aqob’s sons, are dead, along with Adam, Chawah, Noah, his family, Lot, Moseh, Aharown, Yahowsha’ ben Nuwn, Dowd, Shamow’el, all of the prophets including Yasha’yah and Yirmayah, even Yowseph and Miriam, along with Yahowchanan the Immerser. If Paul is right, there would have been no hope for anyone who lived in the first four millennia of human history. Even the man who scribed the Towrah would have been destined for She’owl.

Why write the Torah? Why bother with the Prophets. What is the purpose of the Psalms? Why was the Covenant conceived? Why were the Ten Statements etched in Stone? Why did God bother inviting us to attend His seven annual Feasts? What is the benefit of God accurately predicting the future if not to demonstrate that He can be trusted?

What was the purpose of Yahowsha’s life? Why did He affirm every stroke of every letter of every word which was written in the Towrah – telling us that not even the smallest aspect of the Towrah would be disregarded? Why predict His arrival and mission in a book that can neither be trusted nor perform as promised? And if God is incapable of doing what He has sworn to accomplish, why quote Him knowing that He cannot be trusted, especially to lend credence to a contrarian position?

Sha’uwl has clearly thrown down the gauntlet by saying that God’s Teaching and Guidance, His Towrah, has not, cannot, and will not save a single solitary soul. But if that is the case, by what mechanism was Yahowsha’s soul reunited with Yahowah’s Spirit during Bikuwrym? If what Sha’uwl has written is true, then men did kill God, as Christians claim. And if the "resurrection" was the answer, why was the only common denominator among the Bikuwrym eyewitness accounts that no one recognized Him?

Please tell me, how does anyone benefit from what Yahowah has done if he or she does not know what He has done? How does Passover restore life? How does Un-Yeasted Bread perfect souls? What is the means to adoption into the Covenant Family on First-Born Child? How and why did Yahowah enrich and empower His children on Seven Sabbaths? These are all questions without answers should the Towrah be rendered moot. And that, perhaps, is the reason Sha’uwl never addresses any of these questions. All he asks is that you believe him when he lies, especially when misquoting and contradicting God.

Most people don’t know that Chabaquwq / Habakkuk was one of Yahowah’s prophets and that is to their detriment, because taunting and mocking those he played for fools, Sha’uwl ripped a passage out of a prophecy which actually condemned him by name. This is as brazen as Muhammad telling Muslims that the proper food for them to consume was "Halal" – which is Satan’s given name.

So now that the proper perspective has been established, the lines have been drawn in the sand. There is no getting around what is at stake. This is Sha’uwl and his letters versus Yahowah and His Towrah, Prophets, and Psalms. So let’s compare notes.

Way back in Chapter Three, "Yaruwshalaim – Source of Reconciliation," we considered Yahowah’s narrative in Chabaquwq / Habakkuk based upon Sha’uwl’s insistence that he was running a race. In that this review was a very long time ago, let’s not make the same mistake that Sha’uwl made by removing part of one verse from the context of that prophetic discussion.

Yahowah begins...

"Upon My requirements and responsibilities, I I will continually stand. I will stand up, providing affirmation and validation for that which protects and fortifies. So I will be on the lookout in order to see what he will say about Me, observing how he will question Me. So then, how can I be expected to change My attitude, My thinking, or My response concerning My disapproving rebuke? (2:1)

Then Yahowah responded to me, and He said, ‘Write this revelation and expound on it using letters upon writing tablets so that by reciting this, he might run away. (2:2) Still surely, this revelation from God is for the appointed time of the Mow’ed Meetings. It provides a witness and speaks, pouring out evidence in the end. Whatever extended period of time is required for this question to be resolved, this shall not be proven false. Expect him in this regard, because indeed, he will absolutely come, neither being delayed nor lingering. (2:3)

Pay attention, he will be puffed up with false pride. His soul, it is not right nor straightforward in him. So, through trust and reliance, by being firmly established and upheld by that which is dependable and truthful, those who are upright and vindicated live." (Chabaquwq / Habakkuk 2:4)

Before we press on and consider the remainder of this prophetic warning regarding Sha’uwl, let’s check to see if Sha’uwl quoted Yahowah accurately when he wrote: "But because with the Torah absolutely no one is vindicated or justified by the God becomes evident because: ‘Those who are correct, righteous, and proper, out of faith will live.’" (Sha’uwl / Galatians 3:11)

Once again a modicum of inquiry reveals that Sha’uwl once again twisted Yahowah’s statement so significantly that the opposite of what was conveyed was used to undermine God’s credibility. But this time, in so doing, Sha’uwl took us directly to Yahowah’s single most damning personal rebuke.

The prophecy continues, with Yah saying...

"Moreover, because the intoxicating and inebriating spirit of the man of deceptive infidelity and treacherous betrayal is a high-minded moral failure, and his is arrogant and meritless presumption, he will not rest, find peace, nor live, whoever is open to the broad path, the duplicitous and improper way, associated with Sha’uwl. He and his soul are like the plague of death. And so those who are brought together by him, receiving him, will never be satisfied. All of the Gentiles will gather together unto him, all of the people from different races and nations in different places. (2:5)

But they do not ask questions, any of them, about him. Terse references to the word they lift up as taunts to ridicule, with implied associations that mock, controlling through comparison and counterfeit, along with allusive sayings with derisive words arrogantly conveyed. There are hard and perplexing questions which need to be asked of him, and double dealings to be known regarding him. So they should say, ‘Woe to the one who claims to be great so as to increase his offspring, acting like a rabbi, when neither apply to him.’ For how long will they make pledges based upon his significance, becoming burdened by his testimony?" (2:6)

"Woe to one who is cut off, coveting, while wickedly soliciting ill-gotten gain in league with him, setting up and appointing his temple in association with heights of heaven, thereby snatching away acquired property and possessions from the paws of fellow countrymen. (2:9) You have deliberately decided upon and conspired at the advice of another to promote a shameful plot to confuse those who approach your temple, ruining and reducing many by separating people from different races and places, and in the process losing your soul." (2:10)

"Woe to the one who causes and allows his neighbors, companions, or countryman to drink, thereby associating them with this venomous wrath, but also making them drunk for the purpose of observing their genitals. You will get your fill of shame and infamy instead of honor and glory. Inebriated, in addition, you also show yourself unacceptable, going round about over the lack of circumcision. Upon you is the binding cup of Yahowah’s right hand. Therefore, public humiliation and indignity will be your status and reward." (Chabaquwq / Embrace This / Habakkuk 2:15-16)


In so many ways, faith is the antithesis of trust, just as belief is the inverse of reliance. This dichotomy exists because trust is predicated upon knowing and understanding, while faith fills the void when both are absent. From this perspective, the King James Version, which is a revision five times over of the Latin Vulgate, which was a blended compilation of Greek translations of the Hebrew text, is worse than misleading with regard to the Torah’s message. They are wrong. KJV: "But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, it is evident: for, ‘The just shall live by faith.’"

The King James’ position is illogical, albeit since it’s a translation, it may not be entirely their fault. Even if no one was justified by the Torah, that does not infer that the just shall live by faith. Rather than cause and effect, these are mutually exclusive ideas. It is like saying: Islam does not work so it is evident we should all be atheists.

The Roman Catholic text reads: "And, since in the law no one is justified with God, this is manifest: "For the just man lives by faith." That is not what Yahowah said or Habakkuk wrote. And it is not true.

Often entertaining, NLT postured: "So it is clear that no one can be made right with God by trying to keep the law. For the Scriptures say, ‘It is through faith that a righteous person has life.’" While this was Sha’uwl’s intent, Paul has been anything but "clear." The passages he has quoted he has muddled, and he is often guilty of contradicting his own statements in addition to God’s. Moreover, the Scriptures don’t say anything about "faith," much less that belief leads to being "righteous."

As has become our custom, let’s also consider the Nestle-Aland McReynolds Interlinear. It conveys: "But that in law no one is made right along the God clear because the right from trust will live."

Once again, I ask: if God’s Word cannot save anyone, then whose words can? Should "faith" actually be the key to salvation, who should we believe? Said another way: who would be so foolish as to believe a man who said that he spoke for a god who he claimed could not be trusted?

Speaking of trust, you may have noticed that with exception of the Nestle-Aland Interlinear, all three of the most popular bible translations rendered pistis, "faith," and not "trust." So while we’ve done all of the etymological archeology necessary to prove that pistis meant "trust and reliance" to Greeks circa 50 CE, the uniformity found in old and modern translations regarding pistis demonstrate that Paul’s letters caused its meaning to migrate, becoming "faith and belief" as a result of his popularity. As direct result of Paul’s letters, Christians refer to themselves as "believers," and use "faith" as if it were synonymous with religion.

Frankly, the moment we recognize that "trust" is not achievable in the context of Galatians, we must acquiesce to the modern interpretation. After all, it would be absurd to ask someone to "trust or rely" upon anything without giving them sufficient evidence or reason to do so. But it would be perfectly appropriate to ask them to "believe" that which they do not know, that which was neither explained nor verified, much less rational. And that is the rub; Paul’s position is irrational, necessitating faith.

The reason that Paul never provides the basis of trust, which is evidence, nor the basis of reliance, which is understanding, is that letters are focused upon articulating contrarian opinions and conflicting conclusions. Reason is his enemy, his most debilitating foe. His singular ploy is to draw invalid cause and effect relationships between false statements.

We have seen nothing but a litany of lies tied together by circular reasoning. Not once in the entirety of this epistle has Paul, or will Paul, provide any reliable evidence, and thus nothing to bolster his use of pistis. Even here, where he has misquoted a portion of two verses, neither validates his point. Instead, both mirror his rhetoric when they are inverted. Therefore, since a reader is incapable of trusting his position, Paul has limiting "believers" to putting their "faith" in his assertions – all of which are false.

A very thoughtful friend sent a note. He wrote: "When I was agnostic, I would ask Christians why I should place my faith in their religion, and not believe the Islamic Allah, Buddha, or even the Hindu gods. No one was able to provide a rational answer. Their only "proof" was that they felt the presence of their god controlling their lives. And yet, every Islamic terrorist would say the same thing, with many of them willing to kill others in the process of dying for their faith. So I came to realize that faith was this fuzzy nebulous concept which required no thought, no actual evidence, and no proof. With faith a person does not have to learn anything or think. Both of which are appealing to many."

Therefore, the most logical and informed conclusion based upon the corpus of evidence available to us is that Paul established his faith, his religion, with these words, with us now rendering them as he intended them:

"O ignorant, and irrational, and unreasonable, Galatians. To whom were you bewitched and deceived, being seduced to evil? (3:1) This alone I want to learn from you: out of acting upon the Towrah did you receive the spirit, or alternatively out of hearing of belief? (3:2)

In this way, you are ignorant and irrational, lacking in knowledge and unable to think logically. Having begun with the spirit, now in the flesh are you completing? (3:3) So much and so long you suffered and were vexed, annoyed and angry without reason or result, if indeed, thoughtlessly. (3:4)

The one, therefore, supplying you with the spirit and causing you to function, operating the powers in you, was that out of acting upon the Torah or out of hearing faith? (3:5) Just as Abram believed and had faith in God so it was accounted to Him as righteousness. (3:6) You know, as a result, that the ones out of faith, these sons are Abram. (3:7)

Having seen beforehand then by contrast, it was written that because out of faith are the races made right, so God acted before the beneficial messenger with Abram so that they would in time be spoken of favorably with you to all the races. (3:8) As a result, the ones out of faith, we are spoken of favorably, even praised together with the faithful Abram. (3:9)

For as long as they exist by means of doing the assigned tasks of the Torah, they are under a curse, because it is written that: ‘All are accursed who do not remain alive and persevere with all that is written in the scroll of the Torah, doing it.’ (3:10) So with that Torah, absolutely no one is vindicated or justified alongside God. It becomes evident: ‘Those who are justified, correct, and righteous, out of faith will live.’" (3:11)