Notes for Exodus 1:1LEB

Chapter 1 introduces the theme of bondage in Egypt and shows the intensifying opposition to the fulfillment of promises given earlier to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. The first seven verses announce the theme of Israel’s prosperity in Egypt. The second section (vv. 8–14) reports continued prosperity in the face of deliberate opposition. The third section (vv. 15–21) explains the prosperity as divine favor in spite of Pharaoh’s covert attempts at controlling the population. The final verse records a culmination in the developing tyranny and provides a transition to the next section – Pharaoh commands the open murder of the males. The power of Yahweh is revealed in the chapter as the people flourish under the forces of evil. However, by the turn of affairs at the end of the chapter, the reader is left with a question about the power of Yahweh – "What can Yahweh do?" This is good Hebrew narrative, moving the reader through tension after tension to reveal the sovereign power and majesty of Yahweh, but calling for faith every step of the way. See also D. W. Wicke, "The Literary Structure of Exodus 1:2–2:10, " JSOT 24 (1982): 99-107.


"now these" or "and these." The vav (ו) disjunctive marks a new beginning in the narrative begun in Genesis.


The name of the book of Exodus in the Hebrew Bible is שְׁמוֹת (shémot), the word for "Names," drawn from the beginning of the book. The inclusion of the names at this point forms a literary connection to the book of Genesis. It indicates that the Israelites living in bondage had retained a knowledge of their ancestry, and with it, a knowledge of Yahweh’s promise.


The expression בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל (béne yisrael, "sons of Israel") in most places refers to the nation as a whole and can be translated "Israelites," although traditionally it has been rendered "the children of Israel" or "the sons of Israel." Here it refers primarily to the individual sons of the patriarch Israel, for they are named. But the expression is probably also intended to indicate that they are the Israelites (cf. Gen 29:1LEB, "eastern people," or "easterners," lit., "sons of the east").


"a man and his house." Since this serves to explain "the sons of Israel," it has the distributive sense. So while the "sons of Israel" refers to the actual sons of the patriarch, the expression includes their families (cf. NIV, TEV, CEV, NLT).


Notes for Exodus 1:5LEB

The word נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh) is often translated "soul." But the word refers to the whole person, the body with the soul, and so "life" or "person" is frequently a better translation.


The expression in apposition to נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh) literally says "those who went out from the loins of Jacob." This distinguishes the entire company as his direct descendants.


Gen 46 describes in more detail Jacob’s coming to Egypt with his family. The Greek text of Exod 1:5LEB and of Gen 46:27LEB and two Qumran manuscripts, have the number as seventy-five, counting the people a little differently. E. H. Merrill in conjunction with F. Delitzsch notes that the list in Gen 46 of those who entered Egypt includes Hezron and Hamul, who did so in potentia, since they were born after the family entered Egypt. Joseph’s sons are also included, though they too were born in Egypt. "The list must not be pressed too literally" (E. H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, 49).


"and Joseph was in Egypt" (so ASV). The disjunctive word order in Hebrew draws attention to the fact that Joseph, in contrast to his brothers, did not come to Egypt at the same time as Jacob.


Notes for Exodus 1:6LEB

The text simply uses the vav (ו) consecutive with the preterite, "and Joseph died." While this construction shows sequence with the preceding verse, it does not require that the death follow directly the report of that verse. In fact, readers know from the record in Genesis that the death of Joseph occurred after a good number of years. The statement assumes the passage of time in the natural course of events.


The verse has a singular verb, "and Joseph died, and all his brothers, and all that generation." Typical of Hebrew style the verb need only agree with the first of a compound subject.


Since the deaths of "Joseph and his brothers and all that generation" were common knowledge, their mention must serve some rhetorical purpose. In contrast to the flourishing of Israel, there is death. This theme will appear again: In spite of death in Egypt, the nation flourishes.


Notes for Exodus 1:7LEB

"the sons of Israel."


The disjunctive vav marks a contrast with the note about the deaths of the first generation.


Using מְאֹד (od) twice intensifies the idea of their becoming strong (see GKC 431-32 §133.k).



The text is clearly going out of its way to say that the people of Israel flourished in Egypt. The verbs פָּרָה (parah, "be fruitful"), שָׁרַץ (sharats, "swarm, teem"), רָבָה (ravah, "multiply"), and עָצַם (’atsam, "be strong, mighty") form a literary link to the creation account in Genesis. The text describes Israel’s prosperity in the terms of Yahweh’s original command to be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth, to show that their prosperity was by divine blessing and in compliance with the will of Yahweh. The commission for the creation to fill the earth and subdue it would now begin to materialize through the seed of Abraham.


Notes for Exodus 1:8LEB

It would be difficult to identify who this "new king" might be, since the chronology of ancient Israel and Egypt is continually debated. Scholars who take the numbers in the Bible more or less at face value would place the time of Jacob’s going down to Egypt in about 1876 b.c. This would put Joseph’s experience in the period prior to the Hyksos control of Egypt (1720–1570’s), and everything in the narrative about Joseph points to a native Egyptian setting and not a Hyksos one. Joseph’s death, then, would have been around 1806 b.c., just a few years prior to the end of the 12th Dynasty of Egypt. This marked the end of the mighty Middle Kingdom of Egypt. The relationship between the Hyksos (also Semites) and the Israelites may have been amicable, and the Hyksos then might very well be the enemies that the Egyptians feared in Exodus 1:10LEB. It makes good sense to see the new king who did not know Joseph as either the founder (Amosis, 1570–1546) or an early king of the powerful 18th Dynasty (like Thutmose I). Egypt under this new leadership drove out the Hyksos and reestablished Egyptian sovereignty. The new rulers certainly would have been concerned about an increasing Semite population in their territory (see E. H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, 49–55).


The relative clause comes last in the verse in Hebrew. It simply clarifies that the new king had no knowledge about Joseph. It also introduces a major theme in the early portion of Exodus, as a later Pharaoh will claim not to know who Yahweh is. Yahweh, however, will work to make sure that Pharaoh and all Egypt will know that he is Yahweh.




Notes for Exodus 1:9LEB

"and he said."


The particle הִנֵּה (hinneh) introduces the foundational clause for the exhortation to follow by drawing the listeners’ attention to the Israelites. In other words, the exhortation that follows is based on this observation. The connection could be rendered "since, because," or the like.


Notes for Exodus 1:10LEB

The verb is the Hitpael cohortative of חָכַם (khakam, "to be wise"). This verb has the idea of acting shrewdly, dealing wisely. The basic idea in the word group is that of skill. So a skillful decision is required to prevent the Israelites from multiplying any more.


Pharaoh’s speech invites evaluation. How wise did his plans prove to be?


The word פֶּן (pen) expresses fear or precaution and can also be translated "lest" or "else" (R. J. Williams, Hebrew Syntax, 75–76, §461).


The verb can be translated simply "will multiply," but since Pharaoh has already indicated that he is aware they were doing that, the nuance here must mean to multiply all the more, or to continue to multiply. Cf. NIV "will become even more numerous."


The words וְהָיָה כִּי (véhayah ki) introduce a conditional clause – "if" (see GKC 335 §112.y).


"and [lest] he [Israel] also be joined to."


"and go up from." All the verbs coming after the particle פֶּן (pen, "otherwise, lest" in v. 10) have the same force and are therefore parallel. These are the fears of the Egyptians. This explains why a shrewd policy of population control was required. They wanted to keep Israel enslaved; they did not want them to become too numerous and escape.


Notes for Exodus 1:11LEB

"princes of work." The word שָׂרֵי (sare, "princes") has been translated using words such as "ruler," "prince," "leader," "official," "chief," "commander," and "captain" in different contexts. It appears again in Exodus 2:14LEB and Exodus 18:21LEB and 25. Hebrew מַס (mas) refers to a labor gang organized to provide unpaid labor, or corvée (Deut 20:11LEB; Josh 17:13LEB; 1 Kgs 9:15-21LEB). The entire phrase has been translated "foremen," which combines the idea of oversight and labor. Cf. KJV, NAB, NASB, NRSV "taskmasters"; NIV "slave masters"; NLT "slave drivers."


"over them"; the referent (the Israelites) has been specified in the translation for clarity.


The verb עַנֹּתוֹ (’annoto) is the Piel infinitive construct from עָנָה (’anah, "to oppress"). The word has a wide range of meanings. Here it would include physical abuse, forced subjugation, and humiliation. This king was trying to crush the spirit of Israel by increasing their slave labor. Other terms in the passage that describe this intent include "bitter" and "crushing."


The form is a preterite with the vav (ו) consecutive, וַיִּבֶן (vayyiven). The sequence expressed in this context includes the idea of result.


Many scholars assume that because this city was named Rameses, the Pharaoh had to be Rameses II, and hence that a late date for the exodus (and a late time for the sojourn in Egypt) is proved. But if the details of the context are taken as seriously as the mention of this name, this cannot be the case. If one grants for the sake of discussion that Rameses II was on the throne and oppressing Israel, it is necessary to note that Moses is not born yet. It would take about twenty or more years to build the city, then eighty more years before Moses appears before Pharaoh (Rameses), and then a couple of years for the plagues – this man would have been Pharaoh for over a hundred years. That is clearly not the case for the historical Rameses II. But even more determining is the fact that whoever the Pharaoh was for whom the Israelites built the treasure cities, he died before Moses began the plagues. The Bible says that when Moses grew up and killed the Egyptian, he fled from Pharaoh (whoever that was) and remained in exile until he heard that that Pharaoh had died. So this verse cannot be used for a date of the exodus in the days of Rameses, unless many other details in the chapters are ignored. If it is argued that Rameses was the Pharaoh of the oppression, then his successor would have been the Pharaoh of the exodus. Rameses reigned from 1304 b.c. until 1236 and then was succeeded by Merneptah. That would put the exodus far too late in time, for the Merneptah stela refers to Israel as a settled nation in their land. One would have to say that the name Rameses in this chapter may either refer to an earlier king, or, more likely, reflect an updating in the narrative to name the city according to its later name (it was called something else when they built it, but later Rameses finished it and named it after himself [see B. Jacob, Exodus, 14]). For further discussion see G. L. Archer, "An 18th Dynasty Ramses," JETS 17 (1974): 49-50; and C. F. Aling, "The Biblical City of Ramses," JETS 25 (1982): 129-37. Furthermore, for vv. 11–14, see K. A. Kitchen, "From the Brick Fields of Egypt," TynBul 27 (1976): 137-47.


Notes for Exodus 1:12LEB

"they"; the referent (the Egyptians) has been specified in the translation for clarity.


The imperfect tenses in this verse are customary uses, expressing continual action in past time (see GKC 315 §107.e). For other examples of כַּאֲשֶׁר (kaasher) with כֵּן (ken) expressing a comparison ("just as…so") see Gen 41:13LEB; Judg 1:7LEB; Isa 31:4LEB.


Nothing in the oppression caused this, of course. Rather, the blessing of Yahweh (Gen 12:1–3LEB) was on Israel in spite of the efforts of Egypt to hinder it. According to Gen 15 Yahweh had foretold that there would be this period of oppression (עָנָה [’anah] in Gen 15:13LEB). In other words, Yahweh had decreed and predicted both their becoming a great nation and the oppression to show that he could fulfill his promise to Abraham in spite of the bondage.


"they felt a loathing before/because of"; the referent (the Egyptians) has been specified in the translation for clarity.


Notes for Exodus 1:13LEB

"the Egyptians." For stylistic reasons this has been replaced by the pronoun "they" in the translation.


"with rigor, oppression."


Notes for Exodus 1:14LEB

The verb מָרַר (marar) anticipates the introduction of the theme of bitterness in the instructions for the Passover.


The preposition bet (ב) in this verse has the instrumental use: "by means of" (see GKC 380 §119.o).


"and in all service."


The line could be more literally translated, "All their service in which they served them [was] with rigor." This takes the referent of

בָּהֶם (bahem) to be the Egyptians. The pronoun may also resume the reference to the kinds of service and so not be needed in English: "All their service in which they served [was] with rigor."


Notes for Exodus 1:15LEB

"and the king of Egypt said."


The word for "midwife" is simply the Piel participle of the verb יָלַד (yalad, "to give birth"). So these were women who assisted in the childbirth process. It seems probable that given the number of the Israelites in the passage, these two women could not have been the only Hebrew midwives, but they may have been over the midwives (Rashi). Moreover, the LXX and Vulgate do not take "Hebrew" as an adjective, but as a genitive after the construct, yielding "midwives of/over the Hebrews." This leaves open the possibility that these women were not Hebrews. This would solve the question of how the king ever expected Hebrew midwives to kill Hebrew children. And yet, the two women have Hebrew names.


"who the name of the first [was] Shiphrah, and the name of the second [was] Puah."


Notes for Exodus 1:16LEB

The verse starts with the verb that began the last verse; to read it again seems redundant. Some versions render it "spoke" in v. 15 and "said" in v. 16. In effect, Pharaoh has been delayed from speaking while the midwives are named.


The form is the Piel infinitive construct serving in an adverbial clause of time. This clause lays the foundation for the next verb, the Qal perfect with a vav consecutive: "when you assist…then you will observe." The latter carries an instructional nuance (= the imperfect of instruction), "you are to observe."


"at the birthstool" (cf. ASV, NASB, NRSV), but since this particular item is not especially well known today, the present translation simply states "at the delivery." Cf. NIV "delivery stool."


The instructions must have been temporary or selective, otherwise the decree from the king would have ended the slave population of Hebrews. It is also possible that the king did not think through this, but simply took steps to limit the population growth. The narrative is not interested in supplying details, only in portraying the king as a wicked fool bent on destroying Israel.


The last form וָחָיָה (vakhaya) in the verse is unusual; rather than behaving as a III-Hey form, it is written as a geminate but without the daghesh forte in pause (GKC 218 §76.i). In the conditional clause, following the parallel instruction ("kill him"), this form should be rendered "she may live" or "let her live."


Notes for Exodus 1:17LEB

"and they [fem. pl.] feared"; the referent (the midwives) has been specified in the translation for clarity.


The verb is the Piel preterite of חָיָה (khaya, "to live"). The Piel often indicates a factitive nuance with stative verbs, showing the cause of the action. Here it means "let live, cause to live." The verb is the exact opposite of Pharaoh’s command for them to kill the boys.


Notes for Exodus 1:18LEB

The verb קָרָא (qara’) followed by the lamed (ל) preposition has here the nuance of "summon." The same construction is used later when Pharaoh summons Moses.


The second verb in Pharaoh’s speech is a preterite with a vav (ו) consecutive. It may indicate a simple sequence: "Why have you done…and (so that you) let live?" It could also indicate that this is a second question, "Why have you done …[why] have you let live?"


Notes for Exodus 1:19LEB

See further N. Lemche, "‘Hebrew’ as a National Name for Israel," ST 33 (1979): 1-23.


"they"; the referent (the Hebrew women) has been specified in the translation for clarity.


"before the midwife comes to them (and) they give birth." The perfect tense with the vav consecutive serves as the apodosis to the preceding temporal clause; it has the frequentative nuance (see GKC 337-38 §112.oo).


The point of this brief section is that the midwives respected Yahweh above the king. They simply followed a higher authority that prohibited killing. Fearing Yahweh is a basic part of the true faith that leads to an obedient course of action and is not terrified by worldly threats. There probably was enough truth in what they were saying to be believable, but they clearly had no intention of honoring the king by participating in murder, and they saw no reason to give him a straightforward answer. Yahweh honored their actions.


Notes for Exodus 1:20LEB

The verb וַיֵּיטֶב (vayyetev) is the Hiphil preterite of יָטַב (yatav). In this stem the word means "to cause good, treat well, treat favorably." The vav (ו) consecutive shows that this favor from Yahweh was a result of their fearing and obeying him.


Notes for Exodus 1:21LEB

The temporal indicator וַיְהִי (vayéhi) focuses attention on the causal clause and lays the foundation for the main clause, namely, "Yahweh made households for them." This is the second time the text affirms the reason for their defiance, their fear of Yahweh.


Or "families"; "houses."


Notes for Exodus 1:22LEB

The substantive כֹּל (kol) followed by the article stresses the entirety – "all sons" or "all daughters" – even though the nouns are singular in Hebrew (see GKC 411 §127.b).


The form includes a pronominal suffix that reiterates the object of the verb: "every son…you will throw it."


The first imperfect has the force of a definite order, but the second, concerning the girls, could also have the nuance of permission, which may fit better. Pharaoh is simply allowing the girls to live.


Verse 22 forms a fitting climax to the chapter, in which the king continually seeks to destroy the Israelite strength. Finally, with this decree, he throws off any subtlety and commands the open extermination of Hebrew males. The verse forms a transition to the next chapter, in which Moses is saved by Pharaoh’s own daughter. These chapters show that the king’s efforts to destroy the strength of Israel – so clearly a work of Yahweh – met with failure again and again. And that failure involved the efforts of women, whom Pharaoh did not consider a threat.