Notes for Isa 54:2LEB

"the curtains of our dwelling places let them stretch out."


"your stakes strengthen."


Notes for Isa 54:3LEB

Or "take possession of"; NAB "shall dispossess."


Notes for Isa 54:4LEB

Or "embarrassed"; NASB "humiliated…disgraced."


Another option is to translate, "the disgrace of our widowhood" (so NRSV). However, the following context (vv. 6–7) refers to Zion’s husband, Yahweh, abandoning her, not dying. This suggests that an אַלְמָנָה (’almanah) was a woman who had lost her husband, whether by death or abandonment.


Notes for Isa 54:5LEB

Or "redeemer." See the note at 41:14.


See the note on the phrase "the Holy One of Israel" in Isa 1:4LEB.


Notes for Isa 54:6LEB

"like a woman abandoned and grieved in spirit."


Notes for Isa 54:7LEB

Or "forsook" (NASB).


Notes for Isa 54:8LEB

According to BDB 1009 s.v. שֶׁטֶף the noun שֶׁצֶף here is an alternate form of שֶׁטֶף (shetef, "flood"). Some relate the word to an alleged Akkadian cognate meaning "strength."


"I hid my face from you."



Or "redeemer." See the note at Isa 41:14LEB.


Notes for Isa 54:9LEB

The Hebrew text reads literally, "For [or "indeed"] the waters of Noah [is] this to me." כִּי־מֵי (ki-me, "for the waters of") should be emended to כְּמֵי (kémey, "like the days of"), which is supported by the Qumran scroll 1QIsa and all the ancient versions except LXX.


"the waters of Noah" (so NAB, NIV, NRSV).


Notes for Isa 54:10LEB

"peace" (so many English versions); NLT "of blessing."


Notes for Isa 54:11LEB

Or, more literally, "windblown, storm tossed."


Notes for Isa 54:12LEB

Perhaps, "rubies" (so ASV, NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).


On the meaning of אֶקְדָּח (’eqdakh), which occurs only here, see HALOT 82 s.v.


"border" (so ASV); NASB "your entire wall."


"delightful"; KJV "pleasant."


Notes for Isa 54:13LEB

"and great [will be] the peace of your sons."


Notes for Isa 54:14LEB

"in righteousness [or "vindication"] you will be established." The precise meaning of צְדָקָה (tsédaqah) here is uncertain. It could mean "righteousness, justice," indicating that the city will be a center for justice. But the context focuses on deliverance, suggesting that the term means "deliverance, vindication" here.


"Be far from oppression!" The imperative is used here in a rhetorical manner to express certainty and assurance. See GKC 324 §110.c.


"from terror." The rhetorical command, "be far" is understood by ellipsis here. Note the preceding context.


"it," i.e., the "terror" just mentioned.


Notes for Isa 54:15LEB

The infinitive absolute precedes the finite verb here for emphasis.


"will fall over you." The expression נָפַל עַל (nafal al) can mean "attack," but here it means "fall over to," i.e., "surrender to."


Notes for Isa 54:16LEB

"who brings out an implement for his work."


Notes for Isa 54:17LEB

"and every tongue that rises up for judgment with you will prove to be guilty."


"this is the inheritance of the servants of Yahweh, and their vindication from me."