Notes for Exodus 13:1LEB

This next section seems a little confusing at first glance: vv. 1 and 2 call for the dedication of the firstborn, then vv. 3–10 instruct concerning the ritual of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, and then vv. 11–16 return to the firstborn. B. Jacob (Exodus, 360) explains that vv. 3–16 contain a sermon, in which Moses "began his speech by reminding the people of the events which had just occurred and how they would be recalled by them in the future," and then he explained the rulings that went along with it. So the first two verses state the core of the sermon, a new command calling for the redeemed (firstborn) to be sanctified. The second portion stresses that Yahweh requires the redeemed to remember their redemption by purifying themselves (3–10). The third section (11–16) develops the theme of dedication to Yahweh. The point is that in view of Yahweh’s mighty redemption, the redeemed (represented by the firstborn) must be set apart for Yahweh’s service.


"and Yahweh spoke."


Notes for Exodus 13:2LEB

The verb "sanctify" is the Piel imperative of קָדַשׁ (qadash). In the Qal stem it means "be holy, be set apart, be distinct," and in this stem "sanctify, set apart."


Here is the central principle of the chapter – the firstborn were sacred to Yahweh and must be "set apart" (the meaning of the verb "sanctify") for his use.


The word פֶּטֶּר (petter) means "that which opens"; this construction literally says, "that which opens every womb," which means "the first offspring of every womb." Verses 12 and 15 further indicate male offspring.


"to me it." The preposition here expresses possession; the construction is simply "it [is, belongs] to me."


Notes for Exodus 13:3LEB

The form is the infinitive absolute of זָכַר (zakhar, "remember"). The use of this form in place of the imperative (also found in the Decalogue with the Sabbath instruction) stresses the basic meaning of the root word, everything involved with remembering (emphatic imperative, according to GKC 346 § The verb usually implies that there will be proper action based on what was remembered.


There is a pattern in the arrangement of vv. 3–10 and 11–16. Both sections contain commands based on the mighty deliverance as reminders of the deliverance. "With a mighty hand" occurs in vv. 3, 9, 14, 16. An explanation to the son is found in vv. 8 and 14. The emphases "sign on your hand" and "between your eyes" are part of the conclusions to both halves (vv. 9, 16).


"from a house of slaves." "House" is obviously not meant to be literal; it indicates a location characterized by slavery, a land of slaves, as if they were in a slave house. Egypt is also called an "iron-smelting furnace" (Deut 4:20LEB).


"from this" [place].


The verb is a Niphal imperfect; it could be rendered "must not be eaten" in the nuance of the instruction or injunction category, but permission fits this sermonic presentation very well – nothing with yeast may be eaten.


Notes for Exodus 13:4LEB

The word הַיּוֹם (hayyom) means literally "the day, today, this day." In this sentence it functions as an adverbial accusative explaining when the event took place.


Abib appears to be an old name for the month, meaning something like "[month of] fresh young ears" (Lev 2:14LEB [Heb]) (S. R. Driver, Exodus, 106). B. Jacob (Exodus, 364) explains that these names were not precise designations, but general seasons based on the lunar year in the agricultural setting.


The form is the active participle, functioning verbally.


Notes for Exodus 13:5LEB

"and it will be when."


See notes on Exod 3:8LEB.


The verb is וְעָבַדְתָּ (avadta), the Qal perfect with a vav (ו) consecutive. It is the equivalent of the imperfect tense of instruction or injunction; it forms the main point after the temporal clause – "when Yahweh brings you out…then you will serve."


The object is a cognate accusative for emphasis on the meaning of the service – "you will serve this service." W. C. Kaiser notes how this noun was translated "slavery" and "work" in the book, but "service" or "ceremony" for Yahweh. Israel was saved from slavery to Egypt into service for Yahweh as remembered by this ceremony ("Exodus," EBC 2:383).


Notes for Exodus 13:6LEB

"Seven days."


The imperfect tense functions with the nuance of instruction or injunction. It could also be given an obligatory nuance: "you must eat" or "you are to eat." Some versions have simply made it an imperative.


The phrase "there is to be" has been supplied.


Notes for Exodus 13:7LEB

The imperfect has the nuance of instruction or injunction again, but it could also be given an obligatory nuance.


The construction is an adverbial accusative of time, answering how long the routine should be followed (see GKC 374 §118.k).


Or "visible to you" (B. Jacob, Exodus, 366).


Notes for Exodus 13:8LEB

The form is the Hiphil perfect with the vav (ו) consecutive, carrying the sequence forward: "and you will declare to your son."


A very important part of the teaching here is the manner in which the memory of the deliverance will be retained in Israel – they were to teach their children the reasons for the feast, as a binding law forever. This will remind the nation of its duties to Yahweh in gratitude for the great deliverance.


"day, saying." "Tell…saying" is redundant, so "saying" has not been included in the translation here.


"it is" has been supplied.


The text uses זֶה (zeh), which Gesenius classifies as the use of the pronoun to introduce a relative clause after the preposition (GKC 447 §138.h) – but he thinks the form is corrupt. B. S. Childs, however, sees no reason to posit a corruption in this form (Exodus [OTL], 184).


Notes for Exodus 13:9LEB

This passage has, of course, been taken literally by many devout Jews, and portions of the text have been encased in phylacteries and bound on the arm and forehead. B. Jacob (Exodus, 368), weighing the pros and cons of the literal or the figurative meaning, says that those who took it literally should not be looked down on for their symbolic work. In many cases, he continues, it is the spirit that kills and the letter makes alive – because people who argue against a literal usage do so to excuse lack of action. This is a rather interesting twist in the discussion. The point of the teaching was obviously meant to keep the Law of Yahweh in the minds of the people, to remind them of their duties.


That is, this ceremony.


"for a sign."


"for a memorial."


"between your eyes" (KJV and ASV both similar); the same expression occurs in v. 16.


That these festivals and consecrations were to be signs and memorials is akin to the expressions used in the book of Proverbs (Prov 3:3LEB, "bind them around your neck…write them on your heart"). The people were to use the festivals as outward and visible tokens to remind them to obey what the Law required.


The purpose of using this ceremony as a sign and a memorial is that the Law might be in their mouth. The imperfect tense, then, receives the classification of final imperfect in the purpose clause.


"Mouth" is a metonymy of cause; the point is that they should be ever talking about the Law as their guide as they go about their duties (see Deut 6:7LEB; Exodus 11:19LEB; Josh 1:8LEB).


This causal clause gives the reason for what has just been instructed. Because Yahweh delivered them from bondage, he has the strongest claims on their life.


Notes for Exodus 13:10LEB

The form is a perfect tense with the vav (ו) consecutive, functioning as the equivalent of an imperfect of instruction or injunction.


Or "every year," or "year after year."


Notes for Exodus 13:11LEB

"and it will be when Yahweh brings (will bring) you."


The name "the Canaanite" (and so collective for "Canaanites") is occasionally used to summarize all the list of Canaanitish tribes that lived in the land.


The verb וּנְתָנָהּ (unétanah) is the Qal perfect with the vav (ו) consecutive; this is in sequence to the preceding verb, and forms part of the protasis, the temporal clause. The main clause is the instruction in the next verse.


Notes for Exodus 13:12LEB

The unusual choice of words in this passage reflects the connection with the deliverance of the firstborn in the exodus when the Yahweh passed over the Israelites (Exodus 12:12LEB, Exodus 12:23LEB).


Here the Law said, "you will cause to pass over (וְהַעֲבַרְתָּ, véhaavarta) to Yahweh." The Hiphil perfect with the vav (ו) provides the main clause after the temporal clauses. Yahweh here claimed the firstborn as his own. The remarkable thing about this is that Yahweh did not keep the firstborn that was dedicated to him, but allowed the child to be redeemed by his father. It was an acknowledgment that the life of the child belonged to Yahweh as the one redeemed from death, and that the child represented the family. Thus, the observance referred to the dedication of all the redeemed to Yahweh.


It was once assumed by some scholars that child sacrifice lay behind this text in the earlier days, but that the priests and prophets removed those themes. Apart from the fact that there is absolutely no evidence for anything like that, the Law forbade child sacrifice, and always used child sacrifice as the sample of what not to do in conformity with the pagans (e.g., Deut 12:31). Besides, how absurd would it be for Yahweh to redeem the firstborn from death and then ask Israel to kill them. See further B. Jacob, Exodus, 371.


"every opener of a womb," that is, the firstborn from every womb.


The descriptive noun שֶׁגֶר (sheger) is related to the verb "drop, cast"; it refers to a newly born animal that is dropped or cast from the womb. The expression then reads, "and all that first open [the womb], the casting of a beast."


"that is to you." The preposition expresses possession.


The Hebrew text simply has "the males to Yahweh." It indicates that the Yahweh must have them, or they belong to the Yahweh.


Notes for Exodus 13:13LEB

"and every opener [of a womb]."


The verb תִּפְדֶּה (tifdeh), the instructional imperfect, refers to the idea of redemption by paying a cost. This word is used regularly of redeeming a person, or an animal, from death or servitude (S. R. Driver, Exodus, 109).


The conditional clause uses an imperfect tense; this is followed by a perfect tense with the vav consecutive providing the obligation or instruction. The owner might not redeem the donkey, but if he did not, he could not keep it, he had to kill it by breaking its neck (so either a lamb for it, or the donkey itself). The donkey could not be killed by shedding blood because that would make it a sacrifice, and that was not possible with this kind of animal. See G. Brin, "The Firstling of Unclean Animals," JQR 68 (1977): 1-15.


"and every firstborn of man among your sons." The addition of "man" is clearly meant to distinguish firstborn humans from animals.


One was to sacrifice the firstborn animals to Yahweh, but the children were to be redeemed by their fathers. The redemption price was five shekels (Num 18:15–16LEB).


Notes for Exodus 13:14LEB

As with v. 8, the Law now requires that the children be instructed on the meaning of this observance. It is a memorial of the deliverance from bondage and the killing of the firstborn in Egypt.




"and it will be when your son will ask you."


The question is cryptic; it simply says, "What is this?" but certainly refers to the custom just mentioned. It asks, "What does this mean?" or "Why do we do this?"


The expression is "with strength of hand," making "hand" the genitive of specification. In translation "strength" becomes the modifier, because "hand" specifies where the strength was. But of course the whole expression is anthropomorphic for the power of Yahweh.


"house of slaves."


Notes for Exodus 13:15LEB

"dealt hardly in letting us go" or "made it hard to let us go" (see S. R. Driver, Exodus, 110). The verb is the simple Hiphil perfect הִקְשָׁה (hiqshah, "he made hard"); the infinitive construct לְשַׁלְּחֵנוּ (léshallékhenu, "to release us") could be taken epexegetically, meaning "he made releasing us hard." But the infinitive more likely gives the purpose or the result after the verb "hardened himself." The verb is figurative for "be stubborn" or "stubbornly refuse."


The text uses "man" and "beast."


The form is the active participle.


Notes for Exodus 13:16LEB

The word is טוֹטָפֹת (totafot, "frontlets"). The etymology is uncertain, but the word denotes a sign or an object placed on the forehead (see m. Shabbat 6:1). The Gemara interprets it as a band that goes from ear to ear. In the Targum to 2 Sam 1:10LEB it is an armlet worn by Saul (see S. R. Driver, Exodus, 110). These bands may have resembled the Egyptian practice of wearing as amulets "forms of words written on folds of papyrus tightly rolled up and sewn in linen" (W. C. Kaiser, Jr., "Exodus," EBC 2:384).


The pattern of the passage now emerges more clearly; it concerns the grateful debt of the redeemed. In the first part eating the unleavened bread recalls the night of deliverance in Egypt, and it calls for purity. In the second part the dedication of the firstborn was an acknowledgment of the deliverance of the firstborn from bondage. They were to remember the deliverance and choose purity; they were to remember the deliverance and choose dedication. The NT will also say, "You are not your own, for you were bought with a price, therefore, glorify Yahweh" (1 Cor 6:20LEB). Here too the truths of Yahweh’s great redemption must be learned well and retained well from generation to generation.


Notes for Exodus 13:17LEB

This short section (vv. 17–22) marks the beginning of the journey of the Israelites toward the sea and Sinai. The emphasis here is on the leading of Yahweh – but this leading is manifested in a unique, supernatural way – unlikely to be repeated with these phenomena. Although a primary application of such a passage would be difficult, the general principle is clear: Yahweh, by his clear revelation, leads his people to the fulfillment of the promise. This section has three short parts: the leading to the sea (17–18), the bones of Joseph (19), and the leading by the cloud and pillar (20–22).


The construction for this temporal clause is the temporal indicator with the vav (ו) consecutive, the Piel infinitive construct with a preposition, and then the subjective genitive "Pharaoh."


The verb נָחָה (nakhah, "to lead") is a fairly common word in the Bible for Yahweh’s leading of his people (as in Ps 23:3LEB for leading in the paths of righteousness). This passage illustrates what others affirm, that Yahweh leads his people in a way that is for their own good. There were shorter routes to take, but the people were not ready for them.


The word "way" is an adverbial accusative, providing the location for the verb "lead"; it is in construct so that "land of the Philistines" is a genitive of either indirect object ("to the land") or location ("in" or "through" the land).


The term Philistines has been viewed by modern scholarship as an anachronism, since the Philistines were not believed to have settled in the region until the reign of Rameses III (in which case the term would not fit either the early or the late view of the exodus). But the OT clearly refers to Philistines in the days of the patriarchs. The people there in the earlier period may have been Semites, judging from their names, or they may have been migrants from Crete in the early time. The Philistines after the exodus were of Greek origin. The danger of warfare at this time was clearly with Canaanitish tribes. For further details, see K. A. Kitchen, "The Philistines," Peoples of Old Testament Times, 53–54; J. M. Grintz, "The Immigration of the First Philistines in the Inscriptions," Tarbiz 17 (1945): 32-42, and Tarbiz 19 (1947): 64; and E. Hindson, The Philistines and the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1970), 39–59.


The particle כִּי (ki) introduces a concessive clause here (see R. J. Williams, Hebrew Syntax, 73, §448).


Or "thought."


Before a clause this conjunction פֶּן (pen) expresses fear or precaution (R. J. Williams, Hebrew Syntax, 75–76, §461). It may be translated "lest, else," or "what if."


יִנָּחֵם(yinnakhem) is the Niphal imperfect of נָחַם (nakham); it would normally be translated "repent" or "relent." This nontheological usage gives a good illustration of the basic meaning of having a change of mind or having regrets.




Notes for Exodus 13:18LEB

The Hebrew term יַם־סוּף (Yam Suf) cannot be a genitive ("wilderness of the Red Sea") because it follows a noun that is not in construct; instead, it must be an adverbial accusative, unless it is simply joined by apposition to "the wilderness" – the way to the wilderness [and] to the Red Sea (B. S. Childs, Exodus [OTL], 217).


The translation of this name as "Red Sea" comes from the sea’s Greek name in the LXX and elsewhere. The Red Sea on today’s maps is farther south, below the Sinai Peninsula. But the title Red Sea in ancient times may very well have covered both the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba (see Deut 1:1LEB; 1 Kgs 9:26LEB). The name "Sea of Reeds" in various English versions (usually in the form of a marginal note) and commentaries reflects the meaning of the Hebrew word סוּף a word for reedy water plants (Exod 2:3-5LEB; Isa 19:6LEB; Jonah 2:6LEB [Eng. v. 5]) that may have a connection with an Egyptian word used for papyrus and other marsh plants. On this basis some have taken the term Yam Suph as perhaps referring to Lake Menzaleh or Lake Ballah, which have abundant reeds, north of the extension of the Red Sea on the western side of Sinai. Whatever exact body of water is meant, it was not merely a marshy swamp that the people waded through, but a body of water large enough to make passage impossible without divine intervention, and deep enough to drown the Egyptian army. Lake Menzaleh has always been deep enough to preclude passage on foot (E. H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, 66). Among the many sources dealing with the geography, see B. F. Batto, "The Reed Sea: Requiescat in Pace," JBL 102 (1983): 27-35; M. Waxman, "I Miss the Red Sea," Conservative Judaism 18 (1963): 35-44; G. Coats, "The Sea Tradition in the Wilderness Theme: A Review," JSOT 12 (1979): 2-8; and K. A. Kitchen, On the Reliability of the Old Testament, 261–63.


The term חֲמֻשִׁים (khamushim) is placed first for emphasis; it forms a circumstantial clause, explaining how they went up. Unfortunately, it is a rare word with uncertain meaning. Most translations have something to do with "in battle array" or "prepared to fight" if need be (cf. Josh 1:14; 4:12). The Targum took it as "armed with weapons." The LXX had "in the fifth generation." Some have opted for "in five divisions."


Notes for Exodus 13:19LEB

"he"; the referent (Joseph) has been specified in the translation for clarity.


"solemnly swear, saying" (so NASB). The construction uses the Hiphil infinitive absolute with the Hiphil perfect to stress that Joseph had made them take a solemn oath to carry his bones out of Egypt. "Saying" introduces the content of what Joseph said.


This verb appears also in 3:16 and 4:31. The repetition here is a reminder that Yahweh was doing what he had said he would do and what Joseph had expected.


The form is a Hiphil perfect with the vav (ו) consecutive; it follows in the sequence of the imperfect tense before it, and so is equal to an imperfect of injunction (because of the solemn oath). Israel took Joseph’s bones with them as a sign of piety toward the past and as a symbol of their previous bond with Canaan (B. Jacob, Exodus, 380).


Notes for Exodus 13:21LEB

Yahweh chose to guide the people with a pillar of cloud in the day and one of fire at night, or, as a pillar of cloud and fire, since they represented his presence. Yahweh had already appeared to Moses in the fire of the bush, and so here again is revelation with fire. Whatever the exact nature of these things, they formed direct, visible revelations from Yahweh, who was guiding the people in a clear and unambiguous way. Both clouds and fire would again and again represent the presence of Yahweh in his power and majesty, guiding and protecting his people, by judging their enemies.


The infinitive construct here indicates the result of these manifestations – "so that they went" or "could go."


These are adverbial accusatives of time.


Notes for Exodus 13:22LEB

See T. W. Mann, "The Pillar of Cloud in the Reed Sea Narrative," JBL 90 (1971): 15-30.