Notes for Deut 28:1LEB

The Hebrew text uses the infinitive absolute for emphasis, which the translation indicates with "indeed."

"commanding"; NAB "which I enjoin on you today" (likewise in v. 15).


Notes for Deut 28:2LEB

"come upon you and overtake you" (so NASB, NRSV); NIV "come upon you and accompany you."


Notes for Deut 28:3LEB

Or "in the country" (so NAB, NIV, NLT). This expression also occurs in v. 15.


Notes for Deut 28:4LEB

"the fruit of your womb" (so NAB, NIV, NRSV).


Notes for Deut 28:6LEB

Come in…go out. To "come in" and "go out" is a figure of speech (merism) indicating all of life and its activities.


Notes for Deut 28:7LEB

"who rise up against" (so NIV).

"way" (also later in this verse and in v. 25).


Notes for Deut 28:9LEB

"and walk in his ways" (so NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).


Notes for Deut 28:10LEB

"the name of the Lord is called over you." The Hebrew idiom indicates ownership; see 2 Sam 12:28LEB; Isa 4:1LEB, as well as BDB 896 s.v. קָרָא Niph. 2.d.(4).


Notes for Deut 28:11LEB

"the fruit of your womb" (so NAB, NIV, NRSV); CEV "will give you a lot of children."

"fathers" (also in vv. 36, 64).


Notes for Deut 28:12LEB

"all the work of your hands."


Notes for Deut 28:13LEB

"commanding" (so NRSV); NASB "which I charge you today."


Notes for Deut 28:14LEB

"from all the words which I am commanding."

"in order to serve."


Notes for Deut 28:15LEB

"do not hear the voice of."

"and overtake you" (so NIV, NRSV); NAB, NLT "and overwhelm you."


Notes for Deut 28:18LEB

"the fruit of your womb" (so NAB, NIV, NRSV).


Notes for Deut 28:19LEB

See note on the similar expression in v. 6.


Notes for Deut 28:20LEB

"the curse, the confusion, and the rebuke" (NASB and NIV similar); NRSV "disaster, panic, and frustration."

"in all the stretching out of your hand."

For the MT first person common singular suffix ("me"), the LXX reads either "Lord" (Lucian) or third person masculine singular suffix ("him"; various codices). The MT’s more difficult reading probably represents the original text.


Notes for Deut 28:21LEB

"will cause pestilence to cling to you."


Notes for Deut 28:22LEB

Or perhaps "consumption" (so KJV, NASB, NRSV). The term is from a verbal root that indicates a weakening of one’s physical strength (cf. NAB "wasting"; NIV, NLT "wasting disease").

"hot fever"; NIV "scorching heat."

Or "drought" (so NIV, NRSV, NLT).


Notes for Deut 28:23LEB

The MT reads "Your." The LXX reads "Heaven will be to you."

Or "heavens" (also in the following verse). The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated "heaven(s)" or "sky" depending on the context.


Notes for Deut 28:25LEB

The meaningless MT reading זַעֲוָה (zaavah) is clearly a transposition of the more commonly attested Hebrew noun זְוָעָה (zévaah, "terror").


Notes for Deut 28:28LEB

"heart" (so KJV, NASB).


Notes for Deut 28:29LEB

"you will not cause your ways to prosper."


Notes for Deut 28:30LEB

For MT reading שָׁגַל (shagal, "ravish; violate"), the Syriac, Targum, and Vulgate presume the less violent שָׁכַב (shakhav, "lie with"). The unexpected counterpart to betrothal here favors the originality of the MT.


Notes for Deut 28:32LEB

"and there will be no power in your hand"; NCV "there will be nothing you can do."


Notes for Deut 28:36LEB

The LXX reads the plural "kings."


Notes for Deut 28:40LEB

"your olives will drop off" (נָשַׁל, nashal), referring to the olives dropping off before they ripen.


Notes for Deut 28:42LEB

The Hebrew term denotes some sort of buzzing or whirring insect; some have understood this to be a type of locust (KJV, NIV, CEV), but other insects have also been suggested: "buzzing insects" (NAB); "the cricket" (NASB); "the cicada" (NRSV).


Notes for Deut 28:43LEB

"the foreigner." This is a collective singular and has therefore been translated as plural; this includes the pronouns in the following verse, which are also singular in the Hebrew text.


Notes for Deut 28:45LEB

"commanded"; NAB, NIV, TEV "he gave you."


Notes for Deut 28:46LEB

"they"; the referent (the curses mentioned previously) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

"seed" (so KJV, ASV).


Notes for Deut 28:48LEB

"lack of everything."

"he" (also later in this verse). The pronoun is a collective singular referring to the enemies (cf. CEV, NLT). Many translations understand the singular pronoun to refer to the Lord (cf. NAB, NASB, NIV, NCV, NRSV, TEV).


Notes for Deut 28:49LEB

"from the end of the earth."

Some translations understand this to mean "like an eagle swoops down" (e.g., NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT), comparing the swift attack of an eagle to the attack of the Israelites’ enemies.


Notes for Deut 28:51LEB

"it" (so NRSV), a collective singular referring to the invading nation (several times in this verse and v. 52).

"increase of herds."

"growth of flocks."


Notes for Deut 28:52LEB

"gates," also in vv. 55, 57.


Notes for Deut 28:53LEB

"the fruit of your womb" (so NAB, NRSV); NASB "the offspring of your own body."

"siege and stress."


Notes for Deut 28:55LEB

"besiege," redundant with the noun "siege."


Notes for Deut 28:56LEB

The LXX adds σφόδρα (sphodra, "very") to bring the description into line with v. 54.

"delicateness and tenderness."


Notes for Deut 28:57LEB

includes "that which comes out from between her feet."

"her sons that she will bear."

includes "in her need for everything."


Notes for Deut 28:58LEB

"If you are not careful to do."


Notes for Deut 28:60LEB

These are the plagues Yahweh inflicted on the Egyptians prior to the exodus which, though they did not fall upon the Israelites, must have caused great terror (cf. Exod 15:26LEB).

"will cling to you" (so NIV); NLT "will claim you."


Notes for Deut 28:61LEB

The Hebrew term תּוֹרָה (torah) can refer either (1) to the whole Pentateuch or, more likely, (2) to the book of Deuteronomy or even (3) only to this curse section of the covenant text. "Scroll" better reflects the actual document, since "book" conveys the notion of a bound book with pages to the modern English reader. Cf. KJV, NASB, NRSV "the book of this law"; NIV, NLT "this Book of the Law"; TEV "this book of God’s laws and teachings."


Notes for Deut 28:62LEB

Or "heavens." The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated "heaven(s)" or "sky" depending on the context.

"have not listened to the voice of."


Notes for Deut 28:66LEB

"you will not be confident in your life." The phrase "from one day to the next" is implied by the following verse.


Notes for Deut 29:1LEB

Beginning with 29:1, the verse numbers through 29:29 in the English Bible differ from the verse numbers in the Hebrew text (BHS), with 29:1 ET = 28:69 HT, 29:2 ET = 29:1 HT, 29:3 ET = 29:2 HT, etc., through 29:29 ET = 29:28 HT. With 30:1 the verse numbers in the ET and HT are again the same.

Horeb is another name for Mount Sinai (which some English versions substitute here for clarity, cf. NCV, TEV, CEV, NLT).


Notes for Deut 29:2LEB

The Hebrew text includes "to your eyes," but this is redundant in English style (cf. the preceding "you have seen") and is omitted in the translation.


Notes for Deut 29:3LEB

"testings." This is a reference to the plagues; see note at 4:34.


Notes for Deut 29:4LEB

"a heart to know, eyes to see and ears to hear" (NASB similar); NAB, NRSV "a mind to understand, or eyes to see, or ears to hear."


Notes for Deut 29:5LEB

The Hebrew text includes "on you." This has not been included in the translation for stylistic reasons.

The Hebrew text includes "from on your feet."


Notes for Deut 29:6LEB

The LXX reads "that he is the Lord your God."


Notes for Deut 29:9LEB



Notes for Deut 29:10LEB

"your heads, your tribes." The Syriac presupposes either "heads of your tribes" or "your heads, your judges," etc. (reading שֹׁפְטֵכֶם [shofétekhem] for שִׁבְטֵיכֶם [shivtekhem]). Its comparative difficulty favors the originality of the MT reading. Cf. KJV "your captains of your tribes"; NRSV "the leaders of your tribes"; NLT "your tribal leaders."


Notes for Deut 29:11LEB



Notes for Deut 29:13LEB

"in order to establish you today to him for a people and he will be to you for God." Verses 10–13 are one long sentence in Hebrew. The translation divides this into two sentences for stylistic reasons.

"fathers" (also in v. 25).


Notes for Deut 29:15LEB

This is interpreted by some English versions as a reference to generations not yet born (cf. TEV, CEV, NLT).


Notes for Deut 29:17LEB

The Hebrew term שִׁקּוּץ (shiquts) refers to anything out of keeping with the nature and character of Yahweh and therefore to be avoided by his people Israel. It is commonly used with or as a synonym for תּוֹעֵבָה (toevah, "detestable, abhorrent"; 2 Kgs 23:13LEB; Jer 16:18LEB; Ezek 5:11LEB; Ezek 7:20LEB; Ezek 11:18-21LEB; see note on the term "abhorrent" in Deut 7:25LEB). See M. Grisanti, NIDOTTE 4:243–46.

The Hebrew text includes "which were with them." Verses 16–17 constitute a parenthetical comment.


Notes for Deut 29:18LEB

"yielding fruit poisonous and wormwood." The Hebrew noun לַעֲנָה (laanah) literally means "wormwood" (so KJV, ASV, NAB, NASB), but is used figuratively for anything extremely bitter, thus here "fruit poisonous and bitter."


Notes for Deut 29:19LEB

"he"; the referent (the subject of the warning in v. 18) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

"in his heart."

Or "invokes a blessing on himself." A formalized word of blessing is in view, the content of which appears later in the verse.


"thus destroying." For stylistic reasons the translation begins a new sentence here.

"the watered with the parched." The word "ground" is implied. The exact meaning of the phrase is uncertain although it appears to be figurative. This appears to be a proverbial observation employing a figure of speech (a merism) suggesting totality. That is, the Israelite who violates the letter and even spirit of the covenant will harm not only himself but everything he touches – "the watered and the parched." Cf. CEV "you will cause the rest of Israel to be punished along with you."


Notes for Deut 29:20LEB

"the wrath of the Lord and his zeal." The expression is a hendiadys, a figure in which the second noun becomes adjectival to the first.

"smoke," or "smolder."

"the entire oath."

Or "will lie in wait against him."

"blot out his name from under the sky."


Notes for Deut 29:21LEB

"set him apart."

"for evil"; NAB "for doom"; NASB "for adversity"; NIV "for disaster"; NRSV "for calamity."


Notes for Deut 29:22LEB

"will say and see." One expects a quotation to appear, but it seems to be omitted. To avoid confusion in the translation, the verb "will say" is omitted.


Notes for Deut 29:23LEB

"the anger and the wrath." This construction is a hendiadys intended to intensify the emotion.


Notes for Deut 29:24LEB

"this great burning of anger"; KJV "the heat of this great anger."


Notes for Deut 29:26LEB

"did not assign to them"; NASB, NRSV "had not allotted to them."


Notes for Deut 29:27LEB

"the entire curse."


Notes for Deut 29:29LEB

"sons" (so NASB); KJV, ASV, NIV, NRSV "children."


Notes for Deut 30:1LEB

"the blessing and the curse."

"and you bring (them) back to your heart."


Notes for Deut 30:2LEB

"sons" (so NASB); KJV, ASV, NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT "children."

Or "heart and soul" (also in vv. 6, 10).

"according to all."


Notes for Deut 30:4LEB

"are at the farthest edge of the heavens." The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated "heaven(s)" or "sky" depending on the context.


Notes for Deut 30:5LEB

"fathers" (also later in this verse and in vv. 9, 20).


Notes for Deut 30:6LEB

"circumcise" (so KJV, NAB, NIV, NRSV); TEV "will give you and your descendents obedient hearts." See note on the word "cleanse" in Deut 10:16LEB.

"seed" (so KJV, ASV).


Notes for Deut 30:8LEB

"commanding"; NAB "which I now enjoin on you."


Notes for Deut 30:9LEB

The MT reads "hand" (singular). Most versions read the plural.

"the fruit of your womb" (so NAB, NIV); NRSV "of your body."

"return and." The Hebrew verb is used idiomatically here to indicate the repetition of the following action.

The Hebrew text includes "for good."


Notes for Deut 30:11LEB

"commanding"; NAB "which I enjoin on you."


Notes for Deut 30:14LEB



Notes for Deut 30:16LEB

A number of LXX mss insert before this verse, "if you obey the commandments of the Lord your God," thus translating אֲשֶׁר (’asher) as "which" and the rest as "I am commanding you today, to love," etc., "then you will live," etc.

"which you are going there to possess it." This has been simplified in the translation for stylistic reasons.


Notes for Deut 30:17LEB

"your heart," as a metonymy for the person.


Notes for Deut 30:18LEB

The Hebrew text uses the infinitive absolute for emphasis, which the translation indicates with "certainly."

"to go there to possess it."


Notes for Deut 30:20LEB

The words "I also call on you" are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons. In the Hebrew text vv. 19–20 are one long sentence, which the translation divides into two.

"he is your life and the length of your days to live."