Notes for Deut. 1:1LEB

"These are the words."

"to all Israel."

"on the other side of the Jordan." This would appear to favor authorship by someone living on the west side of the Jordan, that is, in Canaan, whereas the biblical tradition locates Moses on the east side (cf. v. 5). However the Hebrew phrase בְּעֵבֶר הַיּרְדֵּן (ever hayyréden) is a frozen form meaning "Transjordan," a name appropriate from any geographical vantage point. To this day, one standing east of the Jordan can describe himself as being in Transjordan.

The Hebrew term מוֹל (mol) may also mean "in front of" or "near" (cf. NCV, TEV, CEV, NLT).

This place is otherwise unattested and its location is unknown. Perhaps it is Khirbet Sufah, 4 mi (6 km) SSE of Madaba, Jordan.

The Hebrew term בֵּין (ben) may suggest "in the area of."

Paran is the well-known desert area between Mount Sinai and Kadesh Barnea (cf. Num 10:12LEB; Num 12:16LEB).

Tophel refers possibly to eṭ-Ṭafîleh, 15 mi (25 km) SE of the Dead Sea, or to Dâbîlu, another name for Paran. See H. Cazelles, "Tophel (Deut. 1:1)," VT 9 (1959): 412-15.

Laban. Perhaps this refers to Libnah (Num 33:20LEB).

Hazeroth. This probably refers to ˓Ain Khadra. See Y. Aharoni, The Land of the Bible, 199–200.

Di Zahab. Perhaps this refers to Mina al-Dhahab on the eastern Sinai coast.


Notes for Deut. 1:2LEB

An eleven-day journey was about 140 mi (233 km).

Horeb is another name for Sinai. "Horeb" occurs 9 times in the Book of Deuteronomy and "Sinai" only once (Deut. 33:2LEB). "Sinai" occurs 13 times in the Book of Exodus and "Horeb" only 3 times.

Kadesh Barnea. Possibly this refers to ˓Ain Qudeis, about 50 mi (80 km) southwest of Beer Sheba, but more likely to ˓Ain Qudeirat, 5 mi (8 km) NW of ˓Ain Qudeis. See R. Cohen, "Did I Excavate Kadesh-Barnea?" BAR 7 (1981): 20-33.

Mount Seir is synonymous with Edom. "By way of Mount Seir" refers to the route from Horeb that ended up in Edom Cf. CEV "by way of the Mount Seir Road"; TEV "by way of the hill country of Edom."


Notes for Deut. 1:3LEB

"in" or "on." Here there is a contrast between the ordinary time of eleven days (v. 2) and the actual time of forty years, so "not until" brings out that vast disparity.

The eleventh month is Shebat in the Hebrew calendar, January/February in the modern (Gregorian) calendar.

The fortieth year would be 1406 b.c. according to the "early" date of the exodus. See E. H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, 66–75.

"according to all which."


Notes for Deut. 1:4LEB

"when he struck [or "smote"]." See Deut 2:26–3:22LEB.

"who lived."

Heshbon is probably modern Tell Hesban, about 7.5 mi (12 km) south southwest of Amman, Jordan.

"who lived."

Ashtaroth is probably Tell ˓Ashtarah, about 22 mi (35 km) due east of the Sea of Galilee.

Edrei is probably modern Der˓a, 60 mi (95 km) south of Damascus (see Num 21:33LEB; Josh 12:4LEB; Josh 13:12- 31LEB).


Notes for Deut. 1:5LEB

"this instruction"; KJV, NIV, NRSV "this law"; TEV "Elohim’s laws and teachings." The Hebrew noun תוֹרָה (torah) is derived from the verb יָרָה (yarah, "to teach") and here it refers to the Book of Deuteronomy, not the Pentateuch as a whole.


Notes for Deut. 1:6LEB

"lived"; "dwelled."


Notes for Deut. 1:7LEB

"turn"; NAB "Leave here"; NIV, TEV "Break camp."

"go (to)."

"its dwelling places."

"the Arabah" (so ASV, NAB, NIV, NRSV).

"lowlands" (so TEV) or "steppes"; NIV, CEV, NLT "the western foothills."

The Shephelah is the geographical region between the Mediterranean coastal plain and the Judean hill country.

The Hebrew term Negev means literally "desert" or "south" (so KJV, ASV). It refers to the area south of Beer Sheba and generally west of the Arabah Valley between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba.


Notes for Deut. 1:8LEB

"I have placed before you the land."

"YAHWEH." Since the Lord is speaking, it is preferable for clarity to supply the first person pronoun in the translation.

"swore" (so NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT). This refers to Elohim’s promise, made by solemn oath, to give the patriarchs the land.

"fathers" (also in vv. 11, 21, 35).

"their seed after them."


Notes for Deut. 1:10LEB

"multiplied you."

Or "heavens." The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated "heaven(s)" or "sky" depending on the context.


Notes for Deut. 1:11LEB

"may he bless you."


Notes for Deut. 1:13LEB

The Hebrew verb נְבֹנִים (névonim, from בִּין [bin]) is a Niphal referring to skill or intelligence (see T. Fretheim, NIDOTTE 1:652–53).


Notes for Deut. 1:15LEB

Or "selected"; Heb "took."


Notes for Deut. 1:16LEB

Or "you." A number of English versions treat the remainder of this verse and v. 17 as direct discourse rather than indirect discourse (cf. KJV, NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).

"brothers." The term "brothers" could, in English, be understood to refer to siblings, so "fellow citizens" has been used in the translation.

The Hebrew word צֶדֶק (tsedeq, "fairly") carries the basic idea of conformity to a norm of expected behavior or character, one established by Elohim himself. Fair judgment adheres strictly to that norm or standard (see D. Reimer, NIDOTTE 3:750).

"between a man and his brother."

"his stranger" or "his sojourner"; NAB, NIV "an alien"; NRSV "resident alien." The Hebrew word גֵּר (ger) commonly means "foreigner."


Notes for Deut. 1:17LEB

"you," and throughout the verse (cf. NASB, NRSV).

"the small," but referring to social status, not physical stature.


Notes for Deut. 1:20LEB

The Hebrew participle has an imminent future sense here, although many English versions treat it as a present tense ("is giving us," NAB, NIV, NRSV) or a predictive future ("will give us," NCV).


Notes for Deut. 1:21LEB

"YAHWEH your Elohim." The pronoun ("he") has been used in the translation for stylistic reasons, to avoid repetition.

Or "has given you the land" (cf. NAB, NIV, NRSV).


Notes for Deut. 1:23LEB

"the thing was good in my eyes."

Or "selected" (so NIV, NRSV, TEV); Heb "took."


Notes for Deut. 1:24LEB

Or "the Wadi Eshcol" (so NAB).

The Eshcol Valley is a verdant valley near Hebron, still famous for its viticulture (cf. Num 13:22–23LEB). The Hebrew name "Eshcol" means "trestle," that is, the frame on which grape vines grow.


Notes for Deut. 1:25LEB

The Hebrew text includes "in their hand," which is unnecessary and somewhat redundant in English style.


Notes for Deut. 1:26LEB

"the mouth of YAHWEH your Elohim." To include "the mouth" would make for odd English style. The mouth stands by metonymy for YAHWEH’s command, which in turn represents YAHWEH himself.


Notes for Deut. 1:27LEB

"in your tents," that is, privately.

Notes for Deut. 1:28LEB

"have caused our hearts to melt."

"greater." Many English versions understand this to refer to physical size or strength rather than numbers (cf. "stronger," NAB, NIV, NRSV; "bigger," NASB).

Or "as the sky." The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated "heaven(s)" or "sky" depending on the context.

"we have seen."

"the sons of the Anakim."

Anakites were giant people (Num 13:33LEB; Deut 2:10LEB, Deut. 21; 9:2LEB) descended from a certain Anak whose own forefather Arba founded the city of Kiriath Arba, i.e., Hebron (Josh 21:11LEB).


Notes for Deut. 1:29LEB

"do not tremble and do not be afraid." Two synonymous commands are combined for emphasis.


Notes for Deut. 1:30LEB

The Hebrew participle indicates imminent future action here, though some English versions treat it as a predictive future ("will go ahead of you," NCV; cf. also TEV, CEV).

"according to all which he did for you in Egypt before your eyes."


Notes for Deut. 1:31LEB

"YAHWEH your Elohim." The pronoun ("him") has been employed in the translation for stylistic reasons.


Notes for Deut. 1:34LEB

"and swore," i.e., made an oath or vow.


Notes for Deut. 1:35LEB

"Not a man among these men."


Notes for Deut. 1:36LEB

Caleb had, with Joshua, brought back to Israel a minority report from Canaan urging a conquest of the land, for he was confident of YAHWEH’s power (Num 13:6-8LEB, Num 16:30LEB; Num 14:30-38LEB).

"YAHWEH." The pronoun ("me") has been employed in the translation, since it sounds strange to an English reader for YAHWEH to speak about himself in third person.


Notes for Deut. 1:38LEB

"the one who stands before you"; NAB "your aide"; TEV "your helper."

"it"; the referent (the land) has been specified in the translation for clarity.


Notes for Deut. 1:39LEB

"would be a prey."

Do not know good from bad. This is a figure of speech called a merism (suggesting a whole by referring to its extreme opposites). Other examples are the tree of "the knowledge of good and evil" (Gen 2:9LEB), the boy who knows enough "to reject the wrong and choose the right" (Isa 7:16LEB; Isa 8:4LEB), and those who "cannot tell their right hand from their left" (Jonah 4:11LEB). A young child is characterized by lack of knowledge.


Notes for 1:40

The Hebrew pronoun is plural, as are the following verbs, indicating that Moses and the people are addressed (note v. 41).

"the Reed Sea." "Reed" is a better translation of the Hebrew סוּף (suf), traditionally rendered "red." The name "Red Sea" is based on the LXX which referred to it as ἐρυθρᾶς θαλάσσης (eruthras thalassēs, "red sea"). Nevertheless, because the body of water in question is known in modern times as the Red Sea, this term was used in the translation. The part of the Red Sea in view here is not the one crossed in the exodus but its eastern arm, now known as the Gulf of Eilat or Gulf of Aqaba.


Notes for Deut. 1:43LEB

"the mouth of YAHWEH." See note at Deut. 1:26LEB.


Notes for Deut. 1:44LEB

"in that hill country," repeating the end of v. 43.

"came out to meet."

Hormah is probably Khirbet el-Meshash, 5.5 mi (9 km) west of Arad and 7.5 mi (12 km) SE of Beer Sheba. Its name is a derivative of the verb חָרָם (kharam, "to ban; to exterminate"). See Num 21:3LEB.


Notes for Deut. 1:45LEB

"YAHWEH." The pronoun ("he") has been employed in the translation here for stylistic reasons, to avoid redundancy.

"did not hear your voice and did not turn an ear to you."


Notes for Deut. 1:46LEB

"like the days which you lived." This refers to the rest of the forty-year period in the desert before Israel arrived in Moab.






Notes for Deut. 2:1LEB

"Reed Sea." See note on the term "Red Sea" in Deut 1:40LEB.


Notes for Deut. 2:4LEB

"command" (so KJV, NASB); NRSV "charge the people as follows."

"brothers"; NAB "your kinsmen."

The descendants of Esau (Heb "sons of Esau"; the phrase also occurs in Deut. 2:8LEB, Deut. 2:12LEB, Deut. 2:22LEB, Deut. 2:29LEB). These are the inhabitants of the land otherwise known as Edom, south and east of the Dead Sea. Jacob’s brother Esau had settled there after his bitter strife with Jacob (Gen 36:1–8LEB). "Edom" means "reddish," probably because of the red sandstone of the region, but also by popular etymology because Esau, at birth, was reddish (Gen 25:25LEB).


Notes for Deut. 2:5LEB

Mount Seir is synonymous with Edom.


Notes for Deut. 2:6LEB

includes "with silver."


Notes for Deut. 2:7LEB

The Hebrew text does not have the first person pronoun; it has been supplied for purposes of English style (YAHWEH is speaking here).

"all the work of your hands."

"he has." This has been converted to first person in the translation in keeping with English style.

"known" (so ASV, NASB); NAB "been concerned about."

"YAHWEH your Elohim has." This has been replaced in the translation by the first person pronoun ("I") in keeping with English style.


Notes for Deut. 2:8LEB

Or "brothers"; NRSV "our kin."

"the way of the Arabah" (so ASV); NASB, NIV "the Arabah road."

Elat was a port city at the head of the eastern arm of the Red Sea, that is, the Gulf of Aqaba (or Gulf of Eilat). Solomon (1 Kgs 9:28LEB), Uzziah (2 Kgs 14:22LEB), and Ahaz (2 Kgs 16:5–6LEB) used it as a port but eventually it became permanently part of Edom. It may be what is known today as Tell el-Kheleifeh. Modern Eilat is located further west along the northern coast. See G. Pratico, "Nelson Glueck’s 1938–1940 Excavations at Tell el-Kheleifeh: A Reappraisal," BASOR 259 (1985): 1-32.

Ezion Geber. A place near the Gulf of Aqaba, Ezion-geber must be distinguished from Elat (cf. 1 Kgs 9:26–28LEB; 2 Chr 8:17–18LEB). It was, however, also a port city (1 Kgs 22:48–49LEB). It may be the same as the modern site Gezirat al-Fauran, 15 mi (24 km) south-southwest from Tell el-Kheleifah.


Notes for Deut. 2:9LEB

Ar was a Moabite city on the Arnon River east of the Dead Sea. It is mentioned elsewhere in the "Book of the Wars of YAHWEH" (Num 21:15LEB; cf. Num 21:28LEB; Isa 15:1LEB). Here it is synonymous with the whole land of Moab.

The descendants of Lot. Following the destruction of the cities of the plain, Sodom and Gomorrah, as Elohim’s judgment, Lot fathered two sons by his two daughters, namely, Moab and Ammon (Gen 19:30–38LEB). Thus, these descendants of Lot in and around Ar were the Moabites.


Notes for Deut. 2:10LEB

Emites. These giant people, like the Anakites (Deut 1:28LEB), were also known as Rephaites (v. 11). They appear elsewhere in the narrative of the invasion of the kings of the east where they are said to have lived around Shaveh Kiriathaim, perhaps 9 to 11 mi (15 to 18 km) east of the north end of the Dead Sea (Gen 14:5LEB).


Notes for Deut. 2:11LEB

Rephaites. The earliest reference to this infamous giant race is, again, in the story of the invasion of the eastern kings (Gen 14:5LEB). They lived around Ashteroth Karnaim, probably modern Tell Ashtarah (cf. Deut 1:4LEB), in the Bashan plateau east of the Sea of Galilee. Og, king of Bashan, was a Rephaite (Deut 3:11LEB; Josh 12:4LEB; Josh 13:12LEB). Other texts speak of them or their kinfolk in both Transjordan (Deut 2:20LEB; Deut. 3:13LEB) and Canaan (Josh 11:21–22LEB; Josh 14:12-15LEB; Josh 15:13–14LEB; Judg 1:20LEB; 1 Sam 17:4LEB; 1 Chr 20:4–8LEB). They also appear in extra-biblical literature, especially in connection with the city state of Ugarit. See C. L’Heureux, "Ugaritic and Biblical Rephaim," HTR 67 (1974): 265-74.


Notes for Deut. 2:12LEB

Horites. Most likely these are the same as the well-known people of ancient Near Eastern texts described as Hurrians. They were geographically widespread and probably non-Semitic. Genesis speaks of them as the indigenous peoples of Edom that Esau expelled (Gen 36:8–19LEB, Gen 14:31–43LEB) and also as among those who confronted the kings of the east (Gen 14:6LEB).

Most modern English versions, beginning with the ASV (1901), regard vv. 10–12 as parenthetical to the narrative.


Notes for Deut. 2:13LEB

Wadi Zered. Now known as Wadi el-Ḥesa, this valley marked the boundary between Moab to the north and Edom to the south.

"we crossed the Wadi Zered." This has been translated as "we did so" for stylistic reasons, to avoid redundancy.


Notes for Deut. 2:15LEB

"from the middle of." Although many recent English versions leave this expression untranslated, the point seems to be that these soldiers did not die in battle but "within the camp."


Notes for Deut. 2:16LEB

"and it was when they were eliminated, all the men of war, to die from the midst of the people."


Notes for Deut. 2:18LEB

Ar. See note on this word in Deut 2:9LEB.


Notes for Deut. 2:19LEB

Lot’s descendants. See note on this phrase in Deut 2:9LEB.


Notes for Deut. 2:20LEB

Rephaites. See note on this word in Deut 2:11LEB.

Zamzummites. Just as the Moabites called Rephaites by the name Emites, the Ammonites called them Zamzummites (or Zazites; Gen 14:5LEB).


Notes for Deut. 2:21LEB

"them"; the referent (the Rephaites) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

"them"; the referent (the Ammonites) has been specified in the translation for clarity.


Notes for Deut. 2:23LEB

Avvites. Otherwise unknown, these people were probably also Anakite (or Rephaite) giants who lived in the lower Mediterranean coastal plain until they were expelled by the Caphtorites.

Caphtorites. These peoples are familiar from both the OT (Gen 10:14LEB; 1 Chr 1:12LEB; Jer 47:4LEB; Amos 9:7LEB) and ancient Near Eastern texts (Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, 2:37–38; ANET 138). They originated in Crete (OT "Caphtor") and are identified as the ancestors of the Philistines (Gen 10:14LEB; Jer 47:4LEB).

"Caphtor"; the modern name of the island of Crete is used in the translation for clarity (cf. NCV, TEV, NLT).


Notes for Deut. 2:24LEB

Heshbon is the name of a prominent site (now Tell Hesbān, about 7.5 mi [12 km] south southwest of Amman, Jordan). Sihon made it his capital after having driven Moab from the area and forced them south to the Arnon (Num 21:26–30LEB). Heshbon is also mentioned in Deut 1:4LEB.


Notes for Deut. 2:25LEB

"under heaven" (so NIV, NRSV).

"from before you."


Notes for Deut. 2:26LEB

Kedemoth. This is probably Aleiyan, about 8 mi (13 km) north of the Arnon and between Dibon and Mattanah.


Notes for Deut. 2:27LEB

"in the way in the way" (בַּדֶּרֶךְ בַּדֶּרֶךְ, baderekh baderekh). The repetition lays great stress on the idea of resolute determination to stick to the path. IBHS 116 §7.2.3c.


Notes for Deut. 2:28LEB


"and water for silver give to me so that I may drink."


Notes for Deut. 2:30LEB

The translation follows the LXX in reading the first person pronoun. The MT, followed by many English versions, has a second person masculine singular pronoun, "your."

"hardened his spirit" (so KJV, NASB, NRSV); NIV "made his spirit stubborn."

"made his heart obstinate" (so KJV, NASB); NRSV "made his heart defiant."

"into your hand."


Notes for Deut. 2:32LEB


Jahaz. This is probably Khirbet el-Medeiyineh. See J. Dearman, "The Levitical Cities of Reuben and Moabite Toponymy," BASOR 276 (1984): 55-57.


Notes for Deut. 2:33LEB

The translation follows the Qere or marginal reading; the Kethib (consonantal text) has the singular, "his son."

"all his people."


Notes for Deut. 2:34LEB

"every city of men." This apparently identifies the cities as inhabited.

"under the ban" (נַחֲרֵם, nakharem). The verb employed is חָרַם (kharam, usually in the Hiphil) and the associated noun is חֵרֶם (kherem). See J. Naudé, NIDOTTE, 2:276–77, and, for a more thorough discussion, Susan Niditch, War in the Hebrew Bible, 28–77.

Divine judgment refers to Elohim’s designation of certain persons, places, and things as objects of his special wrath and judgment because, in his omniscience, he knows them to be impure and hopelessly unrepentant.


Notes for Deut. 2:36LEB

Aroer. Now known as ˓Ara˒ir on the northern edge of the Arnon river, Aroer marked the southern limit of Moab and, later, of the allotment of the tribe of Reuben (Josh 13:9-16LEB).

"the city in the wadi." This enigmatic reference may refer to Ar or, more likely, to Aroer itself. Epexegetically the text might read, "From Aroer…, that is, the city in the wadi." See D. L. Christensen, Deuteronomy 1–11 (WBC), 49.


Notes for Deut. 2:37LEB

Wadi Jabbok. Now known as the Zerqa River, this is a major tributary of the Jordan that normally served as a boundary between Ammon and Gad (Deut 3:16LEB).


Notes for Deut. 3:1LEB

"turned and went up."

Bashan. This plateau country, famous for its oaks (Isa 2:13LEB) and cattle (Deut 32:14LEB; Amos 4:1LEB), was north of Gilead along the Yarmuk River.


Edrei is probably modern Der˓a, 60 mi (95 km) south of Damascus (see Num 21:33LEB; Josh 12:4LEB; Josh 13:12LEB, Josh 13:31LEB; also mentioned in Deut 1:4LEB).


Notes for Deut. 3:2LEB



Notes for Deut. 3:3LEB

"was left to him." The final phrase "to him" is redundant in English and has been left untranslated.


Notes for Deut. 3:4LEB

Argob. This is a subdistrict of Bashan, perhaps north of the Yarmuk River. See Y. Aharoni, Land of the Bible, 314.


Notes for Deut. 3:5LEB

Or "high walls and barred gates" (NLT); Heb "high walls, gates, and bars." Since "bars" could be understood to mean "saloons," the qualifying adjective "locking" has been supplied in the translation.

The Hebrew term פְּרָזִי (péraziy) refers to rural areas, at the most "unwalled villages" (KJV, NASB "unwalled towns").


Notes for Deut. 3:6LEB

"we put them under the ban" (נַחֲרֵם, nakharem). See note at Deut. 2:34LEB.

The divine curse. See note on this phrase in Deut 2:34LEB.

"city of men."


Notes for Deut. 3:8LEB

Mount Hermon. This is the famous peak at the southern end of the Anti-Lebanon mountain range known today as Jebel es-Sheik.


Notes for Deut. 3:9LEB

Sidonians were Phoenician inhabitants of the city of Sidon (now in Lebanon), about 47 mi (75 km) north of Mount Carmel.

Sirion. This name is attested in the Ugaritic texts as sryn. See UT 495.

Senir. Probably this was actually one of the peaks of Hermon and not the main mountain (Song of Songs 4:8LEB; 1 Chr 5:23LEB). It is mentioned in a royal inscription of Shalmaneser III of Assyria (saniru; see ANET 280).


Notes for Deut. 3:10LEB

Salecah. Today this is known as Salkhad, in Jordan, about 31 mi (50 km) east of the Jordan River in the Hauran Desert.

Edrei. See note on this term in Deut. 3:1LEB.


Notes for Deut. 3:11LEB

"Behold" (הִנֵּה, hinneh).

The Hebrew term עֶרֶשׂ (’eres), traditionally translated "bed" (cf. NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT) is likely a basaltic (volcanic) stone sarcophagus of suitable size to contain the coffin of the giant Rephaite king. Its iron-like color and texture caused it to be described as an iron container. See A. Millard, "King Og’s Iron Bed: Fact or Fancy?" BR 6 (1990): 16-21, 44; cf. also NEB "his sarcophagus of basalt"; TEV, CEV "his coffin."

Or "of iron-colored basalt." See note on the word "sarcophagus" earlier in this verse.

Rabbath. This place name (usually occurring as Rabbah; 2 Sam 11:11LEB; 2 Sam 12:27LEB; Jer 49:3LEB) refers to the ancient capital of the Ammonite kingdom, now the modern city of Amman, Jordan. The word means "great [one]," probably because of its political importance. The fact that the sarcophagus "still remain[ed]" there suggests this part of the verse is post-Mosaic, having been added as a matter of explanation for the existence of the artifact and also to verify the claim as to its size.

"nine cubits." Assuming a length of 18 in (45 cm) for the standard cubit, this would be 13.5 ft (4.1 m) long.

"four cubits." This would be 6 ft (1.8 m) wide.

"by the cubit of man." This probably refers to the "short" or "regular" cubit of approximately 18 in (45 cm).


Notes for Deut. 3:12LEB

The words "the territory extending" are not in the Hebrew text; they are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

Aroer. See note on this term in Deut 2:36LEB.

Reubenites and Gadites. By the time of Moses’ address the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and Manasseh had already been granted permission to settle in the Transjordan, provided they helped the other tribes subdue the occupants of Canaan (cf. Num 32:28–42LEB).


Notes for Deut. 3:13LEB

Half the tribe of Manasseh. The tribe of Manasseh split into clans, with half opting to settle in Bashan and the other half in Canaan (cf. Num 32:39–42LEB; Josh 17:1–13LEB).

Argob. See note on this term in v. 4.


Notes for Deut. 3:14LEB

Geshurites. Geshur was a city and its surrounding area somewhere northeast of Bashan (cf. Josh 12:5LEB; Josh 13:11-13LEB). One of David’s wives was Maacah, the daughter of Talmai king of Geshur and mother of Absalom (cf. 2 Sam 13:37LEB; 2 Sam 15:8LEB; 1 Chr 3:2LEB).

Maacathites. These were the people of a territory southwest of Mount Hermon on the Jordan River. The name probably has nothing to do with David’s wife from Geshur (see note on "Geshurites" earlier in this verse).

Havvoth-Jair. The Hebrew name means "villages of Jair," the latter being named after a son (i.e., descendant) of Manasseh who took the area by conquest.


Notes for Deut. 3:15LEB

Machir was the name of another descendant of Manasseh (cf. Num 32:41LEB; 1 Chr 7:14–19LEB). Eastern Manasseh was thus divided between the Jairites and the Machirites.


Notes for Deut. 3:17LEB

The word "River" is not in the Hebrew text, but has been supplied in the translation for clarity (also in vv. 20, 25).

"from Chinnereth." The words "the sea of" have been supplied in the translation as a clarification.

Chinnereth. This is another name for the Sea of Galilee, so called because its shape is that of a harp (the Hebrew term for "harp" is כִּנּוֹר, kinnor).

The Salt Sea is another name for the Dead Sea (cf. Gen 14:3; Josh 3:16).

The meaning of the Hebrew term אַשְׁדֹּת (’ashdot) is unclear. It is usually translated either "slopes" (ASV, NAB, NIV) or "watershed" (NEB).

Pisgah. This appears to refer to a small range of mountains, the most prominent peak of which is Mount Nebo (Num 21:20; 23:14; Deut 3:27; cf. 34:1).


Notes for Deut. 3:18LEB

"your brothers, the sons of Israel."


Notes for Deut. 3:20LEB

The words "you must fight" are not present in the Hebrew text, but are supplied in the translation for clarity.

"gives your brothers rest."


Notes for Deut. 3:21LEB

"YAHWEH." The translation uses the pronoun ("he") for stylistic reasons, to avoid redundancy.

"which you are crossing over there."


Notes for Deut. 3:24LEB

"Lord Lord." The phrase אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה (’adonay yéhvih) is customarily rendered by Jewish tradition as "Lord God." Cf. NIV, TEV, NLT "Sovereign Lord."

"your servant." The pronoun is used in the translation to clarify that Moses is speaking of himself, since in contemporary English one does not usually refer to oneself in third person.

"your strong hand" (so NIV), a symbol of Elohim’s activity.


Notes for Deut. 3:25LEB

The article is retained in the translation ("the Lebanon," cf. also NAB, NRSV) to indicate that a region (rather than the modern country of Lebanon) is referred to here. Other recent English versions accomplish this by supplying "mountains" after "Lebanon" (TEV, CEV, NLT).


Notes for Deut. 3:26LEB

"YAHWEH." For stylistic reasons the pronoun ("he") has been used in the translation here.

"much to you" (an idiom).


Notes for Deut. 3:27LEB

"lift your eyes to the west, north, south, and east and see with your eyes." The translation omits the repetition of "your eyes" for stylistic reasons.


Notes for Deut. 3:28LEB

"command"; KJV, NASB, NRSV "charge Joshua."


Notes for Deut. 3:29LEB

Beth Peor. This is probably the spot near Pisgah where Balaam attempted to curse the nation Israel (Num 23:28). The Moabites also worshiped Baal there by the name "Baal [of] Peor" (Num 25:1–5).