Notes for Isa 48:1LEB

"house of Jacob"; TEV, CEV "people of Israel."


The Hebrew text reads literally "and from the waters of Judah came out." מִמֵּי (mimme) could be a corruption of מִמְּעֵי (mimmée, "from the inner parts of"; cf. NASB, NIV, NLT, NRSV) as suggested in the above translation. Some translations (ESV, NKJV) retain the MT reading because the Qumran scroll 1QIsa, which corrects a similar form to "from inner parts of" in Isa 39:7LEB, does not do it here.


"cause to remember"; KJV, ASV "make mention of."


"not in truth and not in righteousness."


Notes for Isa 48:2LEB

"they call themselves [or "are called"] from the holy city." The precise meaning of the statement is uncertain. The Niphal of קָרָא (qara’) is combined with the preposition מִן (min) only here. When the Qal of קָרָא is used with מִן, the preposition often indicates the place from which one is summoned (see Isa 46:11LEB). So one could translate, "from the holy city they are summoned," meaning that they reside there.


"lean on" (so NASB, NRSV); NAB, NIV "rely on."


Notes for Isa 48:3LEB

"the former things beforehand I declared."


"and from my mouth they came forth and I caused them to be heard."


Notes for Isa 48:4LEB

The words "I did this" are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons. In the Hebrew text v. 4 is subordinated to v. 3.


The image is that of a person who has tensed the muscles of the face and neck as a sign of resolute refusal.


Notes for Isa 48:6LEB

"gaze [at] all of it"; KJV "see all this."


"[as for] you, will you not declare?"


"and hidden things, and you do not know them."


Notes for Isa 48:7LEB

"are created" (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NLT "They are brand new."


"look"; KJV, NASB "Behold."


Notes for Isa 48:8LEB

"beforehand your ear did not open."


"deceiving, you deceive." The infinitive absolute precedes the finite verb for emphasis.


Or "called" (KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).


Notes for Isa 48:9LEB

"for the sake of my name" (so NAB, NASB); NLT "for my own sake."


"and my praise." לְמַעַן (lémaan, "for the sake of") is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).


"I restrain [myself] concerning you not to cut you off."


Notes for Isa 48:10LEB

The Hebrew text has בְּחַרְתִּיךָ (békhartikha, "I have chosen you"), but the Qumran scroll 1QIsa reads correctly בחנתיכה ("I have tested you"). The metallurgical background of the imagery suggests that purification through testing is the idea.


Notes for Isa 48:11LEB

The Hebrew text repeats לְמַעֲנִי (lémaani, "for my sake") for emphasis.


The Hebrew text reads literally, "for how can it be defiled?" The subject of the verb is probably "name" (v. 9).


See Isa 42:8LEB.


Notes for Isa 48:12LEB

"I [am] he, I [am the] first, also I [am the] last."


Notes for Isa 48:14LEB

This probably refers to the idol gods (see v. 5).


Or "friend," or "covenant partner."


The Lord’s ally is a reference to Cyrus.


"and his arm [against] the Babylonians."


Notes for Isa 48:15LEB

"and his way will be prosperous."


Notes for Isa 48:16LEB

"from the time of its occurring."


The speaker here is not identified specifically, but he is probably Cyrus, the Lords's "ally" mentioned in vv. Isa 14–15LEB.


Notes for Isa 48:17LEB

"your redeemer." See the note at 41:14.


See the note on the phrase "the Holy One of Israel" in Isa 1:4LEB.


Notes for Isa 48:18LEB

"paid attention to" (so NASB, NIV, NRSV); TEV "had listened to."


"like a river your peace would have been." שָׁלוֹם (shalom) probably refers here to the peace and prosperity which Yahweh promised in return for obedience to the covenant.


"and your righteousness like the waves of the sea." צְדָקָה (tsédaqah) probably refers here to divine deliverance from enemies. See v. 19.


Notes for Isa 48:19LEB

"like sand"; NCV "as many as the grains of sand."


"and the issue from your inner parts."


"and his name would not be cut off and would not be destroyed from before me."


Notes for Isa 48:20LEB

"to the end of the earth" (so KJV, NASB, NRSV).


"redeems." See the note at Isa 41:14LEB.


Notes for Isa 48:21LEB

The translation above (present tense) assumes that this verse describes Yahweh’s provision for returning Babylonian exiles (see v. 20; Isa 35:6LEB; Isa 49:10LEB) in terms reminiscent of the Exodus from Egypt (see Exod 17:6LEB).