Notes for Isa 25:1LEB

The prophet speaks here as one who has observed the coming judgment of the proud.


"name." See the note at Isa 24:15LEB.


"plans from long ago [in] faithfulness, trustworthiness." The feminine noun אֱמוּנָה (’emunah, "faithfulness") and masculine noun אֹמֶן (’omen, "trustworthiness"), both of which are derived from the root אָמַן (’aman), are juxtaposed to emphasize the basic idea conveyed by the synonyms. Here they describe the absolute reliability of the divine plans.


Notes for Isa 25:2LEB

Or "For" (KJV, NAB, NASB, NRSV).


The Hebrew text has "you have made from the city." The prefixed mem (ם) on עִיר (’ir, "city") was probably originally an enclitic mem suffixed to the preceding verb. See J. N. Oswalt, Isaiah (NICOT), 1:456, n. 3.


Some with support from the LXX emend זָרִים (zarim, "foreigners") to זֵדִים (zedim, "the insolent").


Notes for Isa 25:3LEB

The Hebrew text has a singular form, but it should be emended to a plural or eliminated altogether. The noun may have been accidentally copied from the preceding verse.


Notes for Isa 25:4LEB

Or perhaps, "the violent"; NIV, NRSV "the ruthless."


The Hebrew text has, "like a rainstorm of a wall," which might be interpreted to mean, "like a rainstorm battering against a wall." The translation assumes an emendation of קִיר (qir, "wall") to קֹר (qor, "cold, winter"; cf. Gen 8:22LEB). See J. N. Oswalt, Isaiah (NICOT), 1:457, n. 6, for discussion.


Notes for Isa 25:5LEB

Or "drought" (TEV).


"the tumult of foreigners."


"[like] heat in the shadow of a cloud."


The translation assumes that the verb יַעֲנֶה (yaaneh) is a Hiphil imperfect from עָנָה (’anah, "be afflicted, humiliated"). In this context with "song" as object it means to "quiet" (see HALOT 853-54 s.v. II ענה). Some prefer to emend the form to the second person singular, so that it will agree with the second person verb earlier in the verse. BDB 776 s.v. III עָנָה Qal.1 understands the form as Qal, with "song" as subject, in which case one might translate "the song of tyrants will be silent." An emendation of the form to a Niphal (יֵעָנֶה, yeaneh) would yield the same translation.


Notes for Isa 25:6LEB

That is, Mount Zion (see 24:23); cf. TEV; NLT "In Jerusalem."


"And Yahweh who commands armies [traditionally, Yahweh of hosts] will make for all the nations on this mountain a banquet of meats, a banquet of wine dregs, meats filled with marrow, dregs that are filtered."


Notes for Isa 25:7LEB

The Hebrew text reads, "the face of the shroud, the shroud over all the nations." Some emend the second הַלּוֹט (hallot) to a passive participle הַלּוּט (hallut, "that is wrapped").


The point of the imagery is unclear. Perhaps the shroud/covering referred to was associated with death in some way (see v. 8).


Notes for Isa 25:8LEB

The image of Yahweh "swallowing" death would be especially powerful, for death was viewed in Canaanite mythology and culture as a hungry enemy that swallows its victims. See the note at Isa 5:14LEB.


"has spoken" (so NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).


Notes for Isa 25:9LEB

"and one will say in that day."


"this [one]."


"this [one]."


Notes for Isa 25:10LEB

"for the hand of Yahweh will rest on this mountain"; TEV "will protect Mount Zion"; NCV "will protect (rest on NLT) Jerusalem."


"under him," i.e., "in his place."


The marginal reading (Qere) is בְּמוֹ (bémo, "in"). The consonantal text (Kethib) has בְּמִי (bémi, "in the water of").


Notes for Isa 25:11LEB

"he"; the referent (Moab) has been specified in the translation for clarity.


The antecedent of the third masculine singular pronominal suffix is probably the masculine noun מַתְבֵּן (matben, "heap of straw") in v. 10 rather than the feminine noun מַדְמֵנָה (madmenah, "manure pile"), also in v. 10.


"he"; the referent (Yahweh) has been specified in the translation for clarity.


"his"; the referent (Moab) has been specified in the translation for clarity.


The Hebrew text has, "he will bring down his pride along with the [?] of his hands." The meaning of אָרְבּוֹת (’arbot), which occurs only here in the OT, is unknown. Some (see BDB 70 s.v. אָרְבָּה) translate "artifice, cleverness," relating the form to the verbal root אָרָב (’arav, "to lie in wait, ambush"), but this requires some convoluted semantic reasoning. HALOT 83 s.v. אָרְבָּה suggests the meaning "[nimble] movements." The translation above, which attempts to relate the form to the preceding context, is purely speculative.


Notes for Isa 25:12LEB

Moab is addressed.


"a fortification, the high point of your walls."


"he will bring [it] down, he will make [it] touch the ground, even to the dust."